## You are here

Homedeterminant

## Primary tabs

# determinant

# Overview

The *determinant* is an algebraic operation that transforms a
square matrix $M$ into a scalar. This operation has many useful and
important properties. For example, the determinant is zero if and
only the matrix $M$ is singular (no inverse exists). The determinant
also has an important geometric interpretation as the area of a
parallelogram, and more generally as the volume of a
higher-dimensional parallelepiped.

The notion of determinant predates matrices and linear transformations. Originally, the determinant was a number associated to a system of $n$ linear equations in $n$ variables. This number “determined” whether the system possessed a unique solution. In this sense, two-by-two determinants were considered by Cardano at the end of the 16th century and ones of arbitrary size (see the definition below) by Leibniz about 100 years later.

# Definition

Let $M$ be an $n\times n$ matrix with entries $M_{{ij}}$ that are
elements of a given field^{1}^{1}Most scientific and geometric
applications deal with matrices made up of real or complex numbers.
However, the determinant of a matrix over any field is well defined
sense and has all the properties of the more conventional
determinant. Indeed, many properties of the determinant remain
valid for matrices with entries in a commutative ring.. The
determinant of $M$, or $\det M$ for short, is the scalar quantity

$\det M=\left|\begin{array}[]{cccc}M_{{11}}&M_{{12}}&\ldots&M_{{1n}}\\ M_{{21}}&M_{{22}}&\ldots&M_{{2n}}\\ \vdots&\vdots&\ddots&\vdots\\ M_{{n1}}&M_{{n2}}&\ldots&M_{{nn}}\end{array}\right|=\sum_{{\pi\in S_{n}}}% \mathrm{sgn}(\pi)M_{{1\pi_{1}}}M_{{2\pi_{2}}}\cdots M_{{n\pi_{n}}}.$ | (1) |

The index $\pi$ in the above sum varies over all the permutations of $\{1,\ldots,n\}$ (i.e., the elements of the symmetric group $S_{n}$.) Hence, there are $n!$ terms in the defining sum of the determinant. The symbol $\operatorname{sgn}(\pi)$ denotes the parity of the permutation; it is $\pm 1$ according to whether $\pi$ is an even or odd permutation. Using the Einstein summation convention one can also express the above definition as

$\det M=\epsilon_{{\pi_{1}\pi_{2}\dots\pi_{n}}}M^{{\pi_{1}}}{}_{1}M^{{\pi_{2}}}% {}_{2}\cdots M^{{\pi_{n}}}{}_{{n}},$ | (2) |

where we’ve raised the first index so that $M^{i}{}_{j}=M_{{ij}}$, and where

$\epsilon_{{\pi_{1}\dots\pi_{n}}}=\operatorname{sgn}(\pi)$ |

is known as the Levi-Civita permutation symbol.

By way of example, the determinant of a $2\times 2$ matrix is given by

$\left|\begin{matrix}M_{{11}}&M_{{12}}\\ M_{{21}}&M_{{22}}\end{matrix}\right|=M_{{11}}M_{{22}}-M_{{12}}M_{{21}},$ |

There are six permutations of the numbers $1,2,3$, namely

$1\overset{+}{2}3,\;2\overset{+}{3}1,\;3\overset{+}{1}2,\;1\overset{-}{3}2,\;3% \overset{-}{2}1,\;2\overset{-}{1}3;$ |

the overset sign indicates the permutation’s signature. Accordingly, the $3\times 3$ deterimant is a sum of the following $6$ terms:

$\left|\begin{matrix}M_{{11}}&M_{{12}}&M_{{13}}\\ M_{{21}}&M_{{22}}&M_{{23}}\\ M_{{31}}&M_{{32}}&M_{{33}}\end{matrix}\right|=\begin{array}[]{rr}\\ M_{{11}}M_{{22}}M_{{33}}+M_{{12}}M_{{23}}M_{{31}}+M_{{13}}M_{{21}}M_{{32}}\\ -M_{{11}}M_{{23}}M_{{32}}-M_{{13}}M_{{22}}M_{{31}}-M_{{12}}M_{{21}}M_{{33}}% \end{array}$ |

# Remarks and important properties

1. The determinant operation converts matrix multiplication into scalar multiplication;

$\det(AB)=\det(A)\det(B),$ where $A,B$ are square matrices of the same size.

2. 3. The determinant of a lower triangular, or an upper triangular matrix is the product of the diagonal entries, since all the other summands in (1) are zero.

4. Similar matrices have the same determinant. To be more precise, let $A$ and $X$ be square matrices with $X$ invertible. Then,

$\det(XAX^{{-1}})=\det(A).$ In particular, if we let $X$ be the matrix representing a change of basis, this shows that the determinant is independent of the basis. The same is true of the trace of a matrix. In fact, the whole characteristic polynomial of an endomorphism is definable without using a basis or a matrix, and it turns out that the determinant and trace are two of its coefficients.

5. The determinant of a matrix $A$ is zero if and only if $A$ is singular; that is, if there exists a non-trivial solution to the homogeneous equation

$A\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{0}.$ 6. The transpose operation does not change the determinant:

$\det A^{{\scriptscriptstyle\mathrm{T}}}=\det A.$ 7. The determinant of a diagonalizable transformation is equal to the product of its eigenvalues, counted with multiplicities.

8. The determinant is homogeneous of degree $n$. This means that

$\det(kM)=k^{n}\det M,\quad k\;\text{is a scalar.}$

## Mathematics Subject Classification

15A15*no label found*

- Forums
- Planetary Bugs
- HS/Secondary
- University/Tertiary
- Graduate/Advanced
- Industry/Practice
- Research Topics
- LaTeX help
- Math Comptetitions
- Math History
- Math Humor
- PlanetMath Comments
- PlanetMath System Updates and News
- PlanetMath help
- PlanetMath.ORG
- Strategic Communications Development
- The Math Pub
- Testing messages (ignore)

- Other useful stuff
- Corrections

## Attached Articles

determinant as a multilinear mapping by rmilson

determinants of some matrices of special form by bwebste

n'th derivative of a determinant by GeraW

determinant condition for a sequence of vectors by GeraW

determinant inequalities by Andrea Ambrosio

determinant in terms of traces of powers by Mathprof

rule of Sarrus by pahio

lecture notes on determinants by rmilson

## Corrections

Error in 2x2 example by mriviera ✓

quote marks should look like ``this'' by jac ✓

spelling by yark ✓

permutation symbol by rspuzio ✓

## Comments

## Just a comment

Y'know, by your notation, I can smell your differential geometric origins a mile away. :)

Not that I don't approve, but it's just a funny way of writing things, sometimes. I speculate that krissy was hoping to see the visual mnemonics for determinants of order 2 and 3 with actual numbers (symbols of the form 1,2,3,4,..) instead of letters.

But maybe not. I think the entry is just fine as it is.

- J"