# angle multiplication and division formulae for tangent

 $\displaystyle\tan(2x)$ $\displaystyle={2\tan x\over 1-\tan^{2}x}$ $\displaystyle\tan(3x)$ $\displaystyle={3\tan x-\tan^{3}x\over 1-3\tan^{2}x}$ $\displaystyle\tan(4x)$ $\displaystyle={4\tan x-3\tan^{3}x\over 1-6\tan^{2}x+\tan^{4}x}$

These formulae may be derived from a recursion. Write $\tan x=w$ and write $\tan(nx)=u_{n}/v_{n}$ where the $u$’s and the $v$’s are polynomials in $w$. Then we have the initial values $u_{1}=w$ and $v_{1}=1$ and the recursions

 $\displaystyle u_{n+1}$ $\displaystyle=u_{n}+wv_{n}$ $\displaystyle v_{n+1}$ $\displaystyle=v_{n}-wu_{n},$

which follow from the addition formula  . Moreover, if we know the tangent of an angle and are interested in finding the tangent of a multiple of that angle, we may use our recursions directly without first having to derive the multiple angle formulae. From these recursions, one may show that the $u$’s will only involve odd powers of $w$ and the $v$’s will only involve even powers of $w$.

Proceeding in the opposite direction, one may consider bisecting an angle. Solving for $\tan x$ in the duplication formula above, one arrives at the following half-angle formula:

 $\tan\left({x\over 2}\right)=\sqrt{1+{1\over\tan^{2}x}}-{1\over\tan x}$
 $\tan\left({x\over 2}\right)={1-\cos x\over\sin x}={\sin x\over 1+\cos x}=\pm% \sqrt{1-\cos x\over 1+\cos x}$
Title angle multiplication and division formulae for tangent AngleMultiplicationAndDivisionFormulaeForTangent 2013-03-22 17:00:15 2013-03-22 17:00:15 rspuzio (6075) rspuzio (6075) 8 rspuzio (6075) Result msc 26A09