# comprehension axiom

 $\exists X\forall x(x\in X\leftrightarrow\phi(x))\text{for any formula}\phi% \text{where}X\text{does not occur free in}\phi$

The specification and separation are sometimes used in place of comprehension, particularly for weakened forms of the axiom (see below).

In theories which make no distinction between objects and sets (such as ZF), this formulation leads to Russell’s paradox  , however in stratified theories this is not a problem (for example second order arithmetic includes the axiom of comprehension).

This axiom can be restricted in various ways. One possibility is to restrict it to forming subsets of sets:

 $\forall Y\exists X\forall x(x\in X\leftrightarrow x\in Y\wedge\phi(x))\text{ % for any formula }\phi\text{ where }X\text{ does not occur free in }\phi$

Another way is to restrict $\phi$ to some family $F$, giving the axiom F-CA. For instance the axiom $\Sigma^{0}_{1}$ -CA is:

 $\exists X\forall x(x\in X\leftrightarrow\phi(x))\text{ where }\phi\text{ is }% \Sigma^{0}_{1}\text{ and }X\text{ does not occur free in }\phi$

A third form (usually called separation) uses two formulas, and guarantees only that those satisfying one are included while those satisfying the other are excluded. The unrestricted form is the same as unrestricted collection  , but, for instance, $\Sigma^{0}_{1}$ separation:

 $\forall x\neg(\phi(x)\wedge\psi(x))\rightarrow\exists X\forall x((\phi(x)% \rightarrow x\in X)\wedge(\psi(x)\rightarrow x\notin X))$
 $\text{ where }\phi\text{ and }\psi\text{ are }\Sigma^{0}_{1}\text{ and }X\text% { does not occur free in }\phi\text{ or }\psi$

is weaker than $\Sigma^{0}_{1}$ -CA.

 Title comprehension axiom Canonical name ComprehensionAxiom Date of creation 2013-03-22 12:56:54 Last modified on 2013-03-22 12:56:54 Owner Henry (455) Last modified by Henry (455) Numerical id 10 Author Henry (455) Entry type Definition Classification msc 03F35 Synonym CA Synonym -CA Synonym comprehension Synonym comprehension axiom Synonym axiom of comprehension Synonym separation Synonym separation axiom  Synonym axiom of separation Synonym specification Synonym specification axiom Synonym axiom of specification Synonym Aussonderungsaxiom