# cyclic permutation

Let $A=\{a_{0},a_{1},\ldots,a_{n-1}\}$ be a finite set  indexed by $i=0,\ldots,n-1$. A cyclic permutation  on $A$ is a permutation  $\pi$ on $A$ such that, for some integer $k$,

 $\pi(a_{i})=a_{(i+k)\!\!\!\!\!\!\pmod{n}},$

where $a\!\!\pmod{b}:=a-\lfloor a/b\rfloor b$, the remainder of $a$ when divided by $b$, and $\lfloor\cdot\rfloor$ is the floor function.

For example, if $A=\{1,2,\ldots,m\}$ such that $a_{i}=i+1$. Then a cyclic permutation $\pi$ on $A$ has the form

 $\displaystyle\pi(1)$ $\displaystyle=$ $\displaystyle r$ $\displaystyle\pi(2)$ $\displaystyle=$ $\displaystyle r+1$ $\displaystyle\vdots$ $\displaystyle\pi(m-r+1)$ $\displaystyle=$ $\displaystyle m$ $\displaystyle\pi(m-r+2)$ $\displaystyle=$ $\displaystyle 1$ $\displaystyle\vdots$ $\displaystyle\pi(m)$ $\displaystyle=$ $\displaystyle r-1.$

In the usual permutation notation, it looks like

 $\pi=\left(\begin{array}[]{ccccccc}1&2&\cdots&m-r+1&m-r+2&\cdots&m\\ r&r+1&\cdots&m&1&\cdots&r-1\end{array}\right)$

Remark. For every finite set of cardinality $n$, there are $n$ cyclic permutations. Each non-trivial cyclic permutation has order $n$. Furthermore, if $n$ is a prime number  , the set of cyclic permutations forms a cyclic group  .

## Cyclic permutations on words

Given a word $w=a_{1}a_{2}\cdots a_{n}$ on a set $\Sigma$ (may or may not be finite), a cyclic conjugate of $w$ is a word $v$ derived from $w$ based on a cyclic permutation. In other words, $v=\pi(a_{1})\pi(a_{2})\cdots\pi(a_{n})$ for some cyclic permutation $\pi$ on $\{a_{1},\ldots,a_{n}\}$. Equivalently, $v$ and $w$ are cyclic conjugates of one another iff $w=st$ and $v=ts$ for some words $s,t$.

For example, the cyclic conjugates of the word $ababa$ over $\{a,b\}$ are

 $baba^{2},\quad aba^{2}b,\quad ba^{2}ba,\quad a^{2}bab,\quad\mbox{and itself}.$

Strictly speaking, $\pi$ is a cyclic permutation on the multiset $A=\{a_{1},\ldots,a_{n}\}$, which can be thought of as a cyclic permutation on the set $A^{\prime}=\{(1,a_{1}),\ldots,(n,a_{n})\}$. Furthermore, $\pi$ can be extended to a function on $A^{*}$: for every word $w=a_{\phi(1)}\cdots a_{\phi(m)}$, $\pi(w):=\pi(a_{\phi(1)})\cdots\pi(a_{\phi(m)})$, where $\phi$ is a permutation on $A$.

Given any word $w=a_{1}a_{2}\cdots a_{n}$ on $\Sigma$, two cyclic permutations $\pi_{1},\pi_{2}$ on $\{a_{1},\ldots,a_{n}\}$ are said to be the same if $\pi_{1}(w)=\pi_{2}(w)$. For example, with the word $abab$, then the cyclic permutation

 $\left(\begin{array}[]{cccc}1&2&3&4\\ 3&4&1&2\end{array}\right)$

is the same as the identity   permutation. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the set of all cyclic conjugates of $w$ and the set of all distinct cyclic permutations on $\{a_{0},a_{1},\ldots,a_{n}\}$.

Remarks.

 Title cyclic permutation Canonical name CyclicPermutation Date of creation 2013-03-22 17:33:54 Last modified on 2013-03-22 17:33:54 Owner CWoo (3771) Last modified by CWoo (3771) Numerical id 13 Author CWoo (3771) Entry type Definition Classification msc 94B15 Classification msc 20B99 Classification msc 03-00 Classification msc 05A05 Classification msc 11Z05 Classification msc 94A60 Synonym Caesar cipher Related topic CyclicCode Related topic SubgroupsWithCoprimeOrders Defines Caesar shift cipher Defines cyclic conjugate