# cyclic rings and zero rings

###### Lemma 1.
1. 1.
2. 2.

$R$ has behavior $n$;

3. 3.

$R\cong n\mathbb{Z}_{n^{2}}$.

###### Proof.

To show that 1 implies 2, let $R$ have behavior $k$. Then there exists a generator     (http://planetmath.org/Generator) $r$ of the additive group  of $R$ such that $r^{2}=kr$. Since $R$ is a zero ring, $r^{2}=0_{R}$. Since $kr=r^{2}=0_{R}=nr$, it must be the case that $k\equiv n\mod n$. By definition of behavior, $k$ divides (http://planetmath.org/Divides) $n$. Hence, $k=n$.

The fact that 2 implies 3 follows immediately from the theorem that is stated and proven at cyclic rings that are isomorphic   to $k\mathbb{Z}_{kn}$ (http://planetmath.org/CyclicRingsThatAreIsomorphicToKmathbbZ_kn).

The fact that 3 implies 1 follows immediately since $n\mathbb{Z}_{n^{2}}$ is a zero ring. ∎

###### Lemma 2.
1. 1.

$R$ is a zero ring;

2. 2.

$R$ has behavior $0$;

3. 3.

$R$ is isomorphic (http://planetmath.org/Isomorphism7) to the subring $\mathbf{B}$ of $\mathbf{M}_{2\operatorname{x}2}(\mathbb{Z})$:

 $\mathbf{B}=\left\{\left.\left(\begin{array}[]{cc}n&-n\\ n&-n\end{array}\right)\right|n\in\mathbb{Z}\right\}.$
###### Proof.

To show that 1 implies 2, the contrapositive of the theorem that is stated and proven at cyclic rings that are isomorphic to $k\mathbb{Z}$ (http://planetmath.org/CyclicRingsThatAreIsomorphicToKmathbbZ) can be used. If $R$ does not have behavior $0$, then its behavior $k$ must be positive by definition, in which case $R\cong k\mathbb{Z}$. It is clear that $k\mathbb{Z}$ is not a zero ring.

To show that 2 implies 3, let $r$ be a generator of the additive group of $R$. It can be easily verified that $\varphi\colon R\to\mathbf{B}$ defined by $\displaystyle\varphi(nr)=\left(\begin{array}[]{cc}n&-n\\ n&-n\end{array}\right)$ is a ring isomorphism.

The fact that 3 implies 1 follows immediately since $\mathbf{B}$ is a zero ring. ∎

Title cyclic rings and zero rings CyclicRingsAndZeroRings 2013-03-22 17:14:43 2013-03-22 17:14:43 Wkbj79 (1863) Wkbj79 (1863) 9 Wkbj79 (1863) Result msc 13M05 msc 13A99 msc 16U99