# pseudoinverse

The inverse  $A^{-1}$ of a matrix $A$ exists only if $A$ is square and has full rank. In this case, $Ax=b$ has the solution $x=A^{-1}b$.

The pseudoinverse  $A^{+}$ (beware, it is often denoted otherwise) is a generalization of the inverse, and exists for any $m\times n$ matrix. We assume $m>n$. If $A$ has full rank ($n$) we define:

 $A^{+}=(A^{T}A)^{-1}A^{T}$

and the solution of $Ax=b$ is $x=A^{+}b$.

## 1 Calculation

The best way to compute $A^{+}$ is to use singular value decomposition  . With $A=USV^{T}$ , where $U$ and $V$ (both $n\times n$) orthogonal   and $S$ ($m\times n$) is diagonal  with real, non-negative singular values $\sigma_{i}$, $i=1,\ldots,n$. We find

 $A^{+}=V(S^{T}S)^{-1}S^{T}U^{T}$

If the rank $r$ of $A$ is smaller than $n$, the inverse of $S^{T}S$ does not exist, and one uses only the first $r$ singular values; $S$ then becomes an $r\times r$ matrix and $U$,$V$ shrink accordingly. see also Linear Equations.

## 2 Generalization

The term “pseudoinverse” is actually used for any operator $\operatorname{pinv}$ satisfying

 $M\operatorname{pinv}(M)M=M$

for a $m\times n$ matrix $M$. Beyond this, pseudoinverses can be defined on any reasonable matrix identity.

References

• Originally from The Data Analysis Briefbook (http://rkb.home.cern.ch/rkb/titleA.htmlhttp://rkb.home.cern.ch/rkb/titleA.html)

Title pseudoinverse Pseudoinverse 2013-03-22 12:07:21 2013-03-22 12:07:21 akrowne (2) akrowne (2) 6 akrowne (2) Definition msc 15-00 msc 65-00 pseudo-inverse Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse MoorePenroseGeneralizedInverse