# antipodal isothermic points

Assume that the momentary temperature on any great circle of a sphere varies continuously ().  Then there exist two diametral points (i.e. antipodal points, end points  of a certain diametre ()) having the same temperature.

Proof.  Denote by $x$ the distance  of any point $P$ measured in a certain direction along the great circle from a and let $T(x)$ be the temperature in $P$.  Then we have a continuous (and periodic (http://planetmath.org/PeriodicFunctions)) real function $T$ defined for  $x\geqq 0$  satisfying  $T(x\!+\!p)=T(x)$  where $p$ is the perimetre of the circle.  Then also the function $f$ defined by

 $f(x)\;:=\;T\left(x\!+\!\frac{p}{2}\right)-T(x),$

i.e. the temperature difference in two antipodic (diametral) points of the great circle, is continuous.  We have

 $\displaystyle f\left(\frac{p}{2}\right)\;=\;T(p)-T\left(\frac{p}{2}\right)=T(0% )-T\left(\frac{p}{2}\right)=-f(0).$ (1)

If $f$ happens to vanish in  $x=0$,  then the temperature is the same in  $x=\frac{p}{2}$  and the assertion proved.  But if  $f(0)\neq 0$,  then by (1), the values of $f$ in  $x=0$  and in  $x=\frac{p}{2}$  have opposite signs.  Therefore, by Bolzano’s theorem, there exists a point $\xi$ between $0$ and $\frac{p}{2}$ such that  $f(\xi)=0$.  Thus the temperatures in $\xi$ and $\xi\!+\!\frac{\pi}{2}$ are the same.

Reference:http://www.maths.lth.se/query/Fråga Lund om matematik, 6 april 2006

Title antipodal isothermic points AntipodalIsothermicPoints 2013-03-22 18:32:10 2013-03-22 18:32:10 pahio (2872) pahio (2872) 6 pahio (2872) Application msc 26A06