# domain

A domain $P$ is a continuous dcpo. Here, continuous means that $P$ is a continuous poset.

Example. Let $A,B$ be sets. Consider the set $P$ of all partial functions  from $A$ to $B$. This means that any $f\in P$ is a function $C\to B$, for some subset $C$ of $A$. We show that $P$ is a domain.

1. 1.

$P$ is a poset: Define a binary relation  on $P$ as follows: $f\leq g$ iff $g$ is an extension  of $f$. In other words, if $f:C\to B$ and $g:D\to B$, then $C\subseteq D$ and $f(x)=g(x)$ for all $x\in C$. Clearly, $\leq$ is reflexive   , anti-symmetric, and transitive    . So $\leq$ turns $P$ into a poset.

2. 2.

$P$ is a dcpo: Suppose that $D$ is a directed subset of $P$. Set $E=\bigcup\{\operatorname{dom}(f)\mid f\in D\}$. Define $g:E\to B$ as follows: for any $x\in E$, $g(x)=f(x)$ where $x\in\operatorname{dom}(f)$ for some $f\in D$. Is this well-defined? Suppose $x\in\operatorname{dom}(f_{1})\cap\operatorname{dom}(f_{2})$. Since $D$ is directed, there is an $f\in D$ extending both $f_{1}$ and $f_{2}$. This means that $f_{1}(x)=f(x)=f_{2}(x)$. Therefore, $g:=\bigvee D$ is a well-defined function (on $E$). Hence $P$ is a dcpo.

3. 3.

If $f,g\ll h$, then $f\vee g\ll h$: Since $h$ extends both $f$ and $g$, $a:=f\vee g:\operatorname{dom}(f)\cup\operatorname{dom}(g)\to B$ is well-defined (the construction is the same as above). To show that $a\ll h$, suppose $D\subseteq P$ is directed and $h\leq\bigvee D$ (note that $\bigvee D$ exists by 2 above). Since $f\ll h$, there is $r\in D$ such that $f\leq r$. Similarly, $g\ll h$ implies an $s\in D$ with $g\leq s$. Since $D$ is directed, there is $t\in D$ with $r,s\leq t$. This means $f\leq t$ and $g\leq t$, or $a=f\vee g\leq t$.

4. 4.

$P$ is continuous: Let $\operatorname{wb}(h)=\{f\in P\mid f\ll h\}$. Then by 3 above, $\operatorname{wb}(h)$ is a directed set. By 2, $b:=\bigvee\operatorname{wb}(h)$ exists, and $b\leq h$. Suppose $x\in\operatorname{dom}(h)$. Then the function $c_{x}:\{x\}\to B$ defined by $c_{x}(x)=h(x)$ is way below $h$, for if $h\leq\bigvee D$, then $x\in\operatorname{dom}(f)$ for some $f\in D$, or $\operatorname{dom}(c_{x})=\{x\}\subseteq\operatorname{dom}(f)$, which means $c_{x}\leq f$. Therefore, $c_{x}\leq b$. This implies that $\operatorname{dom}(h)=\bigvee\{\operatorname{dom}(c_{x})\mid x\in\operatorname% {dom}(h)\}\subseteq\operatorname{dom}(b)$. As a result, $h\leq b$.

Remark. Domain theory is a branch of order theory that is used extensively in theoretical computer science. As in the example, one can think of a domain as a collection  of partial pictures or pieces of partial information. Being continuous is the same as saying that any picture or piece of information can be pieced together by partial ones by way of “approximations”.

 Title domain Canonical name Domain12 Date of creation 2013-03-22 16:49:25 Last modified on 2013-03-22 16:49:25 Owner CWoo (3771) Last modified by CWoo (3771) Numerical id 8 Author CWoo (3771) Entry type Definition Classification msc 06B35 Synonym directed complete Synonym directed complete poset Synonym directed complete partially ordered set Related topic CompleteLattice Defines domain Defines dcpo