# Garden-of-Eden theorem

Edward F. Moore’s Garden-of-Eden theorem was the first rigorous statement of cellular automata theory. Though originally stated for cellular automata on the plane, it works in arbitrary dimension.

###### Theorem 1 (Moore, 1962)

Let $\mathcal{A}=\langle Q,\mathcal{N},f\rangle$ be a cellular automaton  on $\mathbb{Z}^{d}$ with finitely many states. If $\mathcal{A}$ has two mutually erasable patterns, then it has an orphan pattern.

The same year, John Myhill proved the converse implication.

###### Theorem 2 (Myhill, 1962)

Let $\mathcal{A}=\langle Q,\mathcal{N},f\rangle$ be a cellular automaton on $\mathbb{Z}^{d}$ with finitely many states. If $\mathcal{A}$ has an orphan pattern, then it has two mutually erasable patterns.

In other words, pre-injective $d$-dimensional cellular automata are surjective.

Theorems 1 and 2 hold because of the following statement.

###### Lemma 1

Let $a>0$, $d\geq 1$, $r\geq 1$, $k\geq 1$. For every sufficiently large $n$,

 $(a^{k^{d}}-1)^{n^{d}} (1)

Observe that, if $a=|Q|$ and

 $\mathcal{N}=\{x\in\mathbb{Z}^{d}\mid|x_{i}|\leq r\,\forall i\in\{1,\ldots,d\}% \}\;,$ (2)

then $(a^{kn})^{d}$ is the number of possible hypercubic patterns of side $kn$, while $(a^{kn-2r})^{d}$ is the maximum number of their images via $f$.

Proof. The inequality (1) is in fact satisfied precisely by those $n$ that satisfy

 $\log_{a}(a^{k^{d}}-1)<\left(k-\frac{2r}{n}\right)^{d}\;,$

which is true for $n$ large enough since $\log_{a}(a^{k^{d}}-1) while $\lim_{n\to\infty}(k-2r/n)^{d}=k^{d}.$ $\Box$

For the rest of this entry, we will suppose that the neighborhood  index $\mathcal{N}$ has the form (2).

Proof of Moore’s theorem. Suppose $\mathcal{A}$ has two mutually erasable patterns $p_{1}$, $p_{2}$: it is not restrictive to suppose that their common support  is a $d$-hypercube of side $k$. Define an equivalence relation  $\rho$ on patterns of side $n$ by stating that $p\rho q$ if and only if $f(p)=f(q)$: since $p_{1}$ and $p_{2}$ are mutually erasable, $\rho$ has at most $|Q|^{k^{d}}-1$ equivalence classes  .

By the same criterion, we define a family $\{\rho_{n}\}_{n\geq 1}$ of equivalence relations between hypercubic patterns of side $kn$. Each such pattern can be subdivided into $n^{d}$ subpatterns of side $k$: and it is clear that, if two patterns are in relation  $\rho_{n}$, then each of those subpatterns is in relation $\rho$.

But then, the relation $\rho_{n}$ cannot have more than $(|Q|^{k^{d}}-1)^{n^{d}}$ equivalence classes: consequently, at most $(|Q|^{k^{d}}-1)^{n^{d}}$ patterns of side $kn-2r$ can have a preimage  . By Lemma 1 with $a=|Q|$, for $n$ large enough, some patterns of side $kn-2r$ must be orphan. $\Box$

Proof of Myhill’s theorem. Let $p$ be an orphan pattern for $\mathcal{A}$. Again, it is not restrictive to suppose that the support of $p$ is a hypercube of side $k$. For $n\geq 1$ let $\nu_{n}$ be the number of patterns of side $kn$ that are not orphan. Split each pattern of side $kn$ into $n^{d}$ patterns of side $k$, as we did before. Then $\nu_{n}$ cannot exceed the number of those that do not contain a copy of $p$, which in turn is at most $(|Q|^{k^{d}}-1)^{n^{d}}$.

Take $n$ so large that (1) is satisfied: for a fixed state $q_{0}\in Q$, and for $q_{1}=f(q_{0},\ldots,q_{0})$, there are more configurations   that take value $q_{0}$ outside the hypercube $\{0,\ldots,kn-2r-1\}^{d}$ than there are configurations that take value $q_{1}$ outside the hypercube $\{-r,\ldots,kn-1\}^{d}$ and are not Gardens of Eden. As the configurations of the second type are the images of those the first type, there must be two with the same image: those configurations correspond to two mutually erasable patterns. $\Box$

Theorems 1 and  2 have been shown  to hold for cellular automata on amenable groups. Moore’s theorem, in fact, characterizes amenable groups (cf. ): whether Myhill’s theorem also does, is an open problem.

## References

Title Garden-of-Eden theorem GardenofEdenTheorem 2013-03-22 19:22:07 2013-03-22 19:22:07 Ziosilvio (18733) Ziosilvio (18733) 9 Ziosilvio (18733) Theorem msc 68Q80 msc 37B15