although alternative notations such as or even are commonplace.
It is defined via the following steps:
If is the characteristic function of a set , then set
If is a nonnegative measurable function (possibly attaining the value at some points), then we define
For any measurable function (possibly attaining the values or at some points), write where
so that , and define the integral of as
provided that and are not both .
If is Lebesgue measure and is any interval in then the integral is called the Lebesgue integral. If the Lebesgue integral of a function on a set exists and is finite (or, equivalently, if ), then is said to be Lebesgue integrable. The Lebesgue integral equals the Riemann integral everywhere the latter is defined; the advantage to the Lebesgue integral is that it is often well defined even when the corresponding Riemann integral is undefined. For example, the Riemann integral of the characteristic function of the rationals in is undefined, while the Lebesgue integral of this function is simply the measure of the rationals in , which is 0. Moreover, the conditions under which Lebesgue integrals may be exchanged with each other or with limits or derivatives, etc., are far less stringent, making the Lebesgue theory a more convenient tool than the Riemann integral for theoretical purposes.
The introduction of the Lebesgue integral was a major advancement in real analysis, soon awakening a large interest in the scientific community. In 1916 Edward Burr Van Vleck, in ”Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society”, vol. 23, wrote: ”This new integral of Lebesgue is proving itself a wonderful tool. I might compare it with a modern Krupp gun, so easily does it penetrate barriers which were impregnable.”
|Date of creation||2013-03-22 12:18:54|
|Last modified on||2013-03-22 12:18:54|
|Last modified by||djao (24)|