Loop theorem THE LOOP THEOREM
In the topology of 3-manifolds, the loop theorem is generalization of an ansatz discovered by Max Dehn (The Dehn’s Lemma), who saw that if a continuous map from a 2-disk to a 3-manifold whose restriction to the boundary’s disk has no singularities, then it exists another embedding whose restriction to the boundary’s disk is equal to the boundary’s restriction original map.
The following statement called the Loop Theorem is a version from J. Stalling, but written in W. Jaco’s book.
Let be a three-manifold and let
be a connected surface in . Let be a normal subgroup.
be a continuous map such that
Then there exists an embedding such that and ,
The proof is a clever construction due to C. Papakyriakopoulos about a sequence (a tower) of covering spaces. Maybe the best detailed redaction is due to A. Hatcher. But in general, accordingly to Jaco’s opinion, ”… for anyone unfamiliar with the techniques of 3-manifold-topology and are here to gain a working knowledge for the study of problems in this area…, there is no better place to start.”
W. Jaco, Lectures on 3-manifolds topology, A.M.S. regional conference series in Math 43.
J. Hempel, 3-manifolds, Princeton University Press 1976.
A. Hatcher, Notes on 3-manifolds,