# orientation

###### Theorem 1.

Let $M$ be a closed, $n$–dimensional manifold. Then $H_{n}(M\,;\mathbb{Z})$ the top dimensional homology group of $M$, is either trivial ($\{0\}$) or isomorphic to $\mathbb{Z}$.

###### Definition 2.

A closed $n$–manifold is called orientable if its top homology group is isomorphic to the integers. An orientation of $M$ is a choice of a particular isomorphism

 $\mathfrak{o}\colon\thinspace\mathbb{Z}\to H_{n}(M\,;\mathbb{Z}).$

An oriented manifold is a (necessarily orientable) manifold $M$ endowed with an orientation. If $(M,\mathfrak{o})$ is an oriented manifold then $\mathfrak{o}(1)$ is called the fundamental class  of $M$ , or the orientation class of $M$, and is denoted by $[M]$.

The top dimensional homology of a non-closed manifold is always trivial, so it is trickier to define orientation for those beasts. One approach (which we will not follow) is to use special kind of homology (for example relative to the boundary for compact manifolds with boundary). The approach we follow defines (global) orientation as compatible fitting together of local orientations. We start with manifolds without boundary.

###### Theorem 5.

Let $M$ be an $n$-manifold without boundary and $x\in M$. Then the relative homology group

 $H_{n}(M,M\setminus x\,;\mathbb{Z})\cong\mathbb{Z}$
###### Definition 6.

Let $M$ be an $n$-manifold and $x\in M$. An orientation of $M$ at $x$ is a choice of an isomorphism

 $\mathfrak{o}_{x}\colon\thinspace\mathbb{Z}\to H_{n}(M,M\setminus x\,;\mathbb{Z% }).$

to make precise the notion of nicely fitting together of orientations at points, is to require that for nearby points the orientations are defined in a way.

###### Theorem 7.

Let $U$ be an open subset of $M$ that is homeomorphic  to $\mathbb{R}^{n}$ (e.g. the domain of a chart). Then,

 $H_{n}(M,M\setminus U\,;\mathbb{Z})\cong\mathbb{Z}.$
###### Definition 8.

Let $U$ be an open subset of $M$ that is homeomorphic to $\mathbb{R}^{n}$. A local orientation of $M$ on $U$ is a choice of an isomorphism

 $\mathfrak{o}_{U}\colon\thinspace H_{n}(M,M\setminus U\,;\mathbb{Z})\to\mathbb{% Z}.$

Now notice that with $U$ as above and $x\in U$ the inclusion

 $\imath^{U}_{x}\colon\thinspace M\setminus U\hookrightarrow M\setminus x$

a map (actually isomorphism)

 $\imath^{U}_{x\,\,*}\colon\thinspace H_{n}(M,M\setminus U\,;\mathbb{Z})\to H_{n% }(M,M\setminus x\,;\mathbb{Z})$

and therefore a local orientation at $U$ (by composing with the above isomorphism) an orientation at each point $x\in U$. It is to declare that all these orientations fit nicely together.

###### Definition 9.

Let $M$ be a manifold with non-empty boundary, $\partial M\neq\emptyset$. $M$ is called orientable if its double

 $\hat{M}:=M\bigcup_{\partial M}M$

is orientable, where $\bigcup_{\partial M}$ denotes gluing along the boundary.
An orientation of $M$ is determined by an orientation of $\hat{M}$.

 Title orientation Canonical name Orientation1 Date of creation 2013-03-22 12:56:24 Last modified on 2013-03-22 12:56:24 Owner PrimeFan (13766) Last modified by PrimeFan (13766) Numerical id 15 Author PrimeFan (13766) Entry type Definition Classification msc 57N99 Related topic ThomClass Defines orientable Defines oriented Defines orientable manifold Defines oriented manifold Defines fundamental class Defines orientation class Defines local orientation