tree (set theoretic)
In a set , a tree is defined to be a set $T$ and a relation^{} $$ such that:

•
$$ is a partial ordering of $T$

•
For any $t\in T$, $$ is wellordered
The nodes (elements of the tree) immediately greater than a node are termed its children, the node immediately less is its parent (if it exists), any node less is an ancestor and any node greater is a descendant. A node with no ancestors is a root.
The partial ordering represents from the root, and the wellordering requirement prohibits any loops or splits below a node (that is, each node has at most one parent, and therefore at most one grandparent, and so on). Conversely, if $$ then there is exactly one $b{\le}_{T}d$ such that $$ and there is nothing between $a$ and $b$. Note that there is no requirement that a node have a parent–there could be an infinitely long branch $$ with each $$.
Since there is generally no requirement that the tree be connected, the null ordering makes any set into a tree, although the tree is a trivial one, since each element of the set forms a single node with no children.
Since the set of ancestors of any node is wellordered, we can it with an ordinal^{}. We call this the height, and write: $$. This all accords with usage: a root has height $0$, something immediately above the root has height $1$, and so on. We can then assign a height to the tree itself, which we define to be the least number greater than the height of any element of the tree. For finite trees this is just one greater than the height of its tallest element, but infinite^{} trees may not have a tallest element, so we define $\mathrm{ht}(T)=sup\{\mathrm{ht}(t)+1\mid t\in T\}$.
For every $$ we define the $\alpha $th level to be the set ${T}_{\alpha}=\{t\in T\mid \mathrm{ht}(t)=\alpha \}$. So of course ${T}_{0}$ is all roots of the tree. If $$ then $T(\alpha )$ is the subtree of elements with height less than $\alpha $: $$.
We call a tree a $\kappa $tree for any cardinal $\kappa $ if $T=\kappa $ and $\mathrm{ht}(T)=\kappa $. If $\kappa $ is finite, the only way to do this is to have a single branch of length $\kappa $.
Title  tree (set theoretic) 
Canonical name  TreesetTheoretic 
Date of creation  20130322 12:52:19 
Last modified on  20130322 12:52:19 
Owner  Henry (455) 
Last modified by  Henry (455) 
Numerical id  14 
Author  Henry (455) 
Entry type  Definition 
Classification  msc 03E05 
Synonym  tree 
Related topic  Antichain^{} 
Related topic  Aronszajn 
Related topic  SuslinTree 
Defines  level 
Defines  root 
Defines  height 
Defines  tree 
Defines  child 
Defines  children 
Defines  parent 
Defines  ancestor 
Defines  descendant 
Defines  $\alpha $th level 
Defines  $\kappa $tree 