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Hometriangle inequality of complex numbers

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# triangle inequality of complex numbers

Theorem. All complex numbers $z_{1}$ and $z_{2}$ satisfy the triangle inequality

$\displaystyle|z_{1}\!+\!z_{z}|\;\leqq\;|z_{1}|+|z_{2}|.$ | (1) |

*Proof.*

$\displaystyle|z_{1}\!+\!z_{2}|^{2}$ | $\displaystyle\;=\;(z_{1}+z_{2})\overline{(z_{1}+z_{2})}$ | ||

$\displaystyle\;=\;(z_{1}+z_{2})(\overline{z_{1}}+\overline{z_{2}})$ | |||

$\displaystyle\;=\;z_{1}\overline{z_{1}}+z_{2}\overline{z_{2}}+z_{1}\overline{z% _{2}}+\overline{z_{1}}z_{2}$ | |||

$\displaystyle\;=\;|z_{1}|^{2}+|z_{2}|^{2}+z_{1}\overline{z_{2}}+\overline{z_{1% }\overline{z_{2}}}$ | |||

$\displaystyle\;=\;|z_{1}|^{2}+|z_{2}|^{2}+2\mbox{Re}(z_{1}\overline{z_{2}})$ | |||

$\displaystyle\;\leqq\;|z_{1}|^{2}+|z_{2}|^{2}+2|z_{1}\overline{z_{2}}|$ | |||

$\displaystyle\;=\;|z_{1}|^{2}+|z_{2}|^{2}+2|z_{1}|\cdot|\overline{z_{2}}|$ | |||

$\displaystyle\;=\;(|z_{1}|+|z_{2}|)^{2}$ |

Taking then the nonnegative square root, one obtains the asserted inequality.

Remark. Since the real numbers are complex numbers, the inequality (1) and its proof are valid also for all real numbers; however the inequality chain may be simplified to

$|x+y|^{2}\leqq(x+y)^{2}=x^{2}+2xy+y^{2}\leqq x^{2}+2|x||y|+y^{2}=|x|^{2}+2|x||% y|+|y|^{2}=(|x|+|y|)^{2}.$ |

Related:

Modulus, ComplexConjugate, SquareOfSum, TriangleInequality

Synonym:

triangle inequality

Major Section:

Reference

Type of Math Object:

Theorem

Parent:

## Mathematics Subject Classification

30-00*no label found*12D99

*no label found*

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new question: A problem about Euler's totient function by mbhatia

new problem: Problem: Show that phi(a^n-1), (where phi is the Euler totient function), is divisible by n for any natural number n and any natural number a >1. by mbhatia

new problem: MSC browser just displays "No articles found. Up to ." by jaimeglz

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new correction: underline-typo by Filipe

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new image: plot W(t) = P(waiting time <= t) (2nd attempt) by robert_dodier

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new image: plot W(t) = P(waiting time <= t) by robert_dodier