# modules over algebars and homomorphisms between them

Let $R$ be a ring and let $A$ be an associative algebra (not necessarily unital).

Definition. A (left) $A$-module over $R$ is a pair $(M,\circ)$ where $M$ is a (left) $R$-module and

 $\circ:A\times M\to M$

is a $R$-bilinear map such that the following conditions hold:

1. 1.

$(a\circ b)\circ x=a\circ(b\circ x)$

2. 2.

$r(a\circ x)=(ra)\circ x=a\circ(rx)$

for any $a,b\in A$, $x\in M$ and $r\in R$. We will simply use capital letters to denote modules.

Let $M$ be an $A$-module over $R$. If $M^{\prime}\subseteq M$ and $A^{\prime}\subseteq A$ then by $A^{\prime}M^{\prime}$ we denote $R$-submodule  of $M$ generated by elements of the form $am$ for $a\in A^{\prime}$ and $m\in M^{\prime}$. We will call $M$ unitary if $AM=M$. Note, that if $A$ has multiplicative identity  $1$, then $M$ is unitary if and only if $1m=m$ for any $m\in M$.

The reason we use name ,,$A$-module over $R$” instead of ,,$A$-module” is that these to concepts may differ. The latter means that we treat $A$ simply as a ring and take modules over it. But such module need not be equiped with a ,,good” $R$-module structure  . On the other hand this is always the case, when $M$ is unitary over unital algebra  .

If $M$ and $N$ are two $A$-modules over $R$, then a function $f:M\to N$ is called an $A$-homomorphism         iff $f$ is an $R$-homomorphism and additionaly $f(am)=af(m)$ for any $a\in A$ and $m\in M$.

In most cases it is important to assume that the base ring $R$ is a field, even algebraically closed  .

Title modules over algebars and homomorphisms between them ModulesOverAlgebarsAndHomomorphismsBetweenThem 2013-03-22 19:16:32 2013-03-22 19:16:32 joking (16130) joking (16130) 5 joking (16130) Definition msc 13B99 msc 20C99 msc 16S99