# nichols-zoeller theorem

Let $H$ be a Hopf algebra over a field $k$ with an antipode $S$. We will say that $K\subseteq H$ is a if $K$ is both subalgebra and subcoalgebra of underlaying algebra and coalgebra structures  of $H$, and additionaly $S(K)\subseteq K$. In particular a Hopf subalgebra $K\subseteq H$ is an algebra over $k$, so $H$ may be regarded as a $K$-module.

If $K\subseteq H$ is a Hopf subalgebra of a Hopf algebra $H$, then $H$ is free as a $K$-module. In particular, if $H$ is finite dimensional, then $\mathrm{dim}_{k}K$ divides $\mathrm{dim}_{k}H$.

Remark 2. Generally this theorem does not need to hold if $H$ is only an algebra. For example, consider $H=\mathbb{M}_{n}(k)$ the matrix algebra, where $n\geq 2$ and let $T\subseteq H$ be the upper triangular matrix  subalgebra. It is well known that $\mathrm{dim}_{k}H=n^{2}$ and $\mathrm{dim}_{k}T=\frac{n(n+1)}{2}$. Of course $\frac{n(n+1)}{2}$ does not divide $n^{2}$ for $n\geq 2$. Thus the Nichols-Zoeller Theorem does not hold for algebras.

Title nichols-zoeller theorem NicholszoellerTheorem 2013-03-22 18:58:34 2013-03-22 18:58:34 joking (16130) joking (16130) 6 joking (16130) Theorem msc 16W30