square root of 5

The square root of 5 is an irrational number involved in the formula for the golden ratioMathworldPlanetmath. It is also used in statistics when dealing with 5-business day weeks. Its decimal expansion begins 2.2360679774997896964, see http://www.research.att.com/ njas/sequences/A002163sequence A002163 in Sloane’s OEIS. Its simple continued fractionMathworldPlanetmath is 2, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, … One formula for the square root of 5 involves some of the same numbers as in Euler’s identityPlanetmathPlanetmath (but with a 2 instead of the 1): eiπ+2ϕ. The square root of 5 modulo a prime numberMathworldPlanetmath is employed in some ECM algorithms.

A rectangle with unit height and 5 width can be split into two golden rectangles of the same size and a square, or into two golden rectangles of different sizes.

The conjecture stating “that any abelian surface with RM by Q(5) is isogenous to a simple factor of the Jacobian of a modular curve X0(N) for some N” still stands. John Wilson has produced equations for curves of genus 2 with Jacobians of the specified RM.


  • 1 Francois Morain. Primality Proving Using Elliptic CurvesMathworldPlanetmath: An Update. Springer: Berlin (2004)
  • 2 Robert Nemiroff and Jerry Bonnell. A million digits of sqrt(5) at Project Gutenberg http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext96/5sqrt10.txthttp://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext96/5sqrt10.txt
  • 3 Clifford Pickover. Wonders of Numbers, Oxford: Oxford University Press (2001) p. 106.
  • 4 John Wilson “Curves of genus 2 with real multiplication by a square root of 5” p. i Dissertation, Oxford University, Oxford (1998) http://eprints.maths.ox.ac.uk/32/01/wilson.pdfhttp://eprints.maths.ox.ac.uk/32/01/wilson.pdf
Title square root of 5
Canonical name SquareRootOf5
Date of creation 2013-03-22 17:28:12
Last modified on 2013-03-22 17:28:12
Owner MathNerd (17818)
Last modified by MathNerd (17818)
Numerical id 6
Author MathNerd (17818)
Entry type Definition
Classification msc 11A25