# Baire category theorem

In fact, such countable intersections of dense, open subsets are dense. So the theorem holds also for any non-empty open subset of a complete metric space.

Alternative formulations: Call a set first category, or a meagre set, if it is a countable union of nowhere dense sets, otherwise second category. The Baire category theorem  is often stated as “no non-empty complete metric space is of first category”, or, trivially, as “a non-empty, complete metric space is of second category”. In short, this theorem says that every nonempty complete metric space is a Baire space   .

It may also be taken as giving a concept of “small sets”, similar to sets of measure zero: a countable union of these sets remains “small”. However, the real line $\mathbb{R}$ may be partitioned into a set of measure zero and a set of first category; the two concepts are distinct.

Note that, apart from the requirement that the set be a complete metric space, all conditions and conclusions  of the theorem are phrased topologically. This “metric requirement” is thus something of a disappointment. As it turns out, there are two ways to reduce this requirement.

First, if a topological space  $\mathcal{T}$ is homeomorphic to a non-empty open subset of a complete metric space, then we can transfer the Baire property through the homeomorphism, so in $\mathcal{T}$ too any countable intersection of open dense sets is non-empty (and, in fact, dense). The other formulations also hold in this case.

Second, the Baire category theorem holds for a locally compact, Hausdorff  11Some authors only define a locally compact space to be a Hausdorff space; that is the sense required for this theorem. topological space $\mathcal{T}$.

Title Baire category theorem BaireCategoryTheorem 2013-03-22 12:43:32 2013-03-22 12:43:32 Koro (127) Koro (127) 13 Koro (127) Theorem msc 54E52 SardsTheorem Meager Residual