# net

Let $X$ be a set. A net is a map from a directed set to $X$. In other words, it is a pair $(A,\gamma)$ where $A$ is a directed set and $\gamma$ is a map from $A$ to $X$. If $a\in A$ then $\gamma(a)$ is normally written $x_{a}$, and then the net is written $(x_{a})_{a\in A}$, or simply $(x_{a})$ if the direct set $A$ is understood.

Now suppose $X$ is a topological space  , $A$ is a directed set, and $(x_{a})_{a\in A}$ is a net. Let $x\in X$. Then $(x_{a})$ is said to converge to $x$ if whenever $U$ is an open neighbourhood of $x$, there is some $b\in A$ such that $x_{a}\in U$ whenever $a\geq b$.

Similarly, $x$ is said to be an accumulation point   (or cluster point) of $(x_{a})$ if whenever $U$ is an open neighbourhood of $x$ and $b\in A$ there is $a\in A$ such that $a\geq b$ and $x_{a}\in U$.

Nets are sometimes called Moore–Smith sequences, in which case convergence of nets may be called Moore–Smith convergence.

If $B$ is another directed set, and $\delta\colon B\rightarrow A$ is an increasing map such that $\delta(B)$ is cofinal in $A$, then the pair $(B,\gamma\circ\delta)$ is said to be a subnet of $(A,\gamma)$. Alternatively, a subnet of a net $(x_{\alpha})_{\alpha\in A}$ is sometimes defined to be a net $(x_{\alpha_{\beta}})_{\beta\in B}$ such that for each $\alpha_{0}\in A$ there exists a $\beta_{0}\in B$ such that $\alpha_{\beta}\geq\alpha_{0}$ for all $\beta\geq\beta_{0}$.

Nets are a generalisation of sequences (http://planetmath.org/Sequence), and in many respects they work better in arbitrary topological spaces than sequences do. For example:

 Title net Canonical name Net Date of creation 2013-03-22 12:54:03 Last modified on 2013-03-22 12:54:03 Owner yark (2760) Last modified by yark (2760) Numerical id 12 Author yark (2760) Entry type Definition Classification msc 54A20 Synonym Moore-Smith sequence Related topic Filter Related topic NetsAndClosuresOfSubspaces Related topic ContinuityAndConvergentNets Related topic CompactnessAndConvergentSubnets Related topic AccumulationPointsAndConvergentSubnets Related topic TestingForContinuityViaNets Defines subnet Defines Moore-Smith convergence Defines cluster point