# normal modal logic

The study of modal logic is based on the concept of a logic, which is a set $\Lambda$ of wff’s satisfying the following:

The last condition means: if $A$ and $A\to B$ are in $\Lambda$, so is $B$ in $\Lambda$.

A normal modal logic is a modal logic $\Lambda$ that includes the law of distribution K (after Kripke):

 $\square(A\to B)\to(\square A\to\square B)$

as an axiom schema  , and obeying the rule of necessitation $RN$:

from $\vdash A$, we may infer $\vdash\square A$: if $A\in\Lambda$, then $\square A\in\Lambda$.

Normal modal logics are the most widely studied modal logics. The smallest normal modal logic is called K. Other normal modal logics are built from K by attaching wff’s as axiom schemas. Below is a list of schemas used to form some of the most common normal modal logics:

• 4: $\square A\to\square\square A$

• 5: $\Diamond A\to\square\Diamond A$

• D: $\square A\to\Diamond A$

• T: $\square A\to A$

• B: $A\to\square\Diamond A$

• C: $\square(A\wedge\square B)\to\square(A\wedge B)$

• M: $\square(A\wedge B)\to\square A\wedge\square B$

• G: $\Diamond\square A\to\square\Diamond A$

• L: $\square(A\wedge\square A\to B)\vee\square(B\wedge\square B\to A)$

• W: $\square(\square A\to A)\to\square A$

For example, the normal modal logic D is the smallest normal modal logic containing $D$ as its axiom schema.

Notation. The smallest normal modal logic containing schemas $\Sigma_{1},\ldots,\Sigma_{n}$ is typically denoted

K$\mathbf{\Sigma_{1}\cdots\Sigma_{n}}$.

It is easy to see that K$\mathbf{\Sigma_{1}\cdots\Sigma_{n}}$ can be built from the “bottom up”: call a finite sequence  of wff’s a deduction   if each wff is either a tautology, an instance of $\Sigma_{i}$ for some $i$, or as a result of an application of modus ponens or necessitation on earlier wff’s in the sequence. A wff is deducible from if it is the last member of some deduction. Let $\Lambda_{k}$ be the set of all wff’s deducible from deductions of lengths at most $k$. Then

K$\mathbf{\Sigma_{1}\cdots\Sigma_{n}}=\bigcup_{i=1}^{\infty}\Lambda_{i}$

Below are some of the most common normal modal logics:

Title normal modal logic NormalModalLogic 2013-03-22 19:33:38 2013-03-22 19:33:38 CWoo (3771) CWoo (3771) 16 CWoo (3771) Definition msc 03B45 DisjunctionProperty law of distribution necessitation K logic