primary decomposition theorem
The primary decomposition theorem^{} for ideals in a given commutative ring (with 1) is a generalization^{} of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic^{}. The full statement of the theorem is as follows:
Theorem 1.
Every decomposable ideal in a commutative ring $R$ with 1 has a unique minimal primary decomposition. In other words, if $I$ is an ideal of $R$ with two minimal primary decompositions
$$I={J}_{1}\cap {J}_{2}\cap \mathrm{\cdots}\cap {J}_{m}={K}_{1}\cap {K}_{2}\cap \mathrm{\cdots}\cap {K}_{n},$$ |
then $m\mathrm{=}n$, and after some rearrangement, $\mathrm{rad}\mathit{}\mathrm{(}{J}_{i}\mathrm{)}\mathrm{=}\mathrm{rad}\mathit{}\mathrm{(}{K}_{i}\mathrm{)}$.
The theorem says, that, the number of primary components of a minimal primary decomposition of an ideal, as well as the set of prime radicals associated with the primary components, are unique. This is not to say, however, that the ideal has a unique minimal primary decomposition. For example, let $k$ be a field. Consider the ring $k[x,y]$ of polynomials^{} over $k$ in two variables. The ideal $({x}^{2},xy)$ has minimal primary decompositions $(x)\cap ({x}^{2},y+rx)$ for every $r\in k$.
Remark. To tie the fundamental theorem of arithmetic with this theorem, we observe that every natural number^{} $n$ greater than $1$ can be uniquely expressed as a product^{} of prime powers:
$$n={p}_{1}^{{a}_{1}}{p}_{2}^{{a}_{2}}\mathrm{\cdots}{p}_{n}^{{a}_{n}},$$ |
where each ${p}_{i}$ is a prime number^{}. This is the same as saying that
$$(n)=({p}_{1}^{{a}_{1}})\cap ({p}_{2}^{{a}_{2}})\cap \mathrm{\cdots}\cap ({p}_{n}^{{a}_{n}}),$$ |
as every $({p}^{a})$ is a $(p)$-primary ideal^{} of $\mathbb{Z}$ for every prime $p\in \mathbb{N}$. The decomposition is minimal^{}, as $({p}_{1}^{{a}_{1}})=({p}_{2}^{{a}_{2}})$ iff ${p}_{1}={p}_{2}$ and ${a}_{1}={a}_{2}$.
References
- 1 D.G. Northcott, Ideal Theory, Cambridge University Press, 1953.
Title | primary decomposition theorem |
---|---|
Canonical name | PrimaryDecompositionTheorem1 |
Date of creation | 2013-03-22 18:19:56 |
Last modified on | 2013-03-22 18:19:56 |
Owner | CWoo (3771) |
Last modified by | CWoo (3771) |
Numerical id | 9 |
Author | CWoo (3771) |
Entry type | Theorem |
Classification | msc 13C99 |