# projectivity

Let $PG(V)$ and $PG(W)$ be projective geometries  , with $V,W$ vector spaces  over a field $K$. A function $p$ from $PG(V)$ to $PG(W)$ is called a projective transformation, or simply a projectivity if

1. 1.
2. 2.

$p$ is order preserving.

A projective property is any geometric property, such as incidence, linearity, etc… that is preserved under a projectivity.

From the definition, we see that a projectivity $p$ carries 0 to 0, $V$ to $W$. Furthermore, it carries points to points, lines to lines, planes to planes, etc.. In short, $p$ preserves linearity. Because $p$ is a bijection, $p$ also preserves dimensions  , that is $\dim(S)=\dim(p(S))$, for any subspace   $S$ of $V$. In particular, $\dim(V)=\dim(W)$. Other properties preserved by $p$ are incidence: if $S\cap T\neq\varnothing$, then $p(S)\cap p(T)\neq\varnothing$; and cross ratios (http://planetmath.org/CrossRatio).

Every bijective  semilinear transformation defines a projectiviity. To see this, let $f:V\to W$ be a semilinear transformation. If $S$ is a subspace of $V$, then $f(S)$ is a subspace of $W$, as $x,y\in f(S)$, then $x+y=f(a)+f(b)=f(a+b)\in f(S)$, and $\alpha x={\beta}^{\theta}x={\beta}^{\theta}f(a)=f(\beta a)\in f(S)$, where $\theta$ is an automorphism     of the common underlying field $K$. Also, if $S$ is a subspace of a subspace $T$ of $V$, then $f(S)$ is a subspace of $f(T)$. Now if we define $f^{*}:PG(V)\to PG(W)$ by $f^{*}(S)=f(S)$, it is easy to see that $f^{*}$ is a projectivity.

Conversely, if $V$ and $W$ are of finite dimension greater than $2$, then a projectivity $p:PG(V)\to PG(W)$ induces a semilinear transformation $\hat{p}:V\to W$. This highly non-trivial fact is the (first) fundamental theorem of projective geometry  .

If the semilinear transformation induced by the projectivity $p$ is in fact a linear transformation, then $p$ is a : three distinct collinear points are mapped to three distinct collinear points.

Remark. The definition given in this entry is a generalization  of the definition typically given for a projective transformation. In the more restictive definition, a projectivity $p$ is defined merely as a bijection between two projective spaces  that is induced by a linear isomorphism. More precisely, if $P(V)$ and $P(W)$ are projective spaces induced by the vector spaces $V$ and $W$, if $L:V\to W$ is a bijective linear transformation, then $p=P(L):P(V)\to P(W)$ defined by

 $P(L)[v]=[Lv]$

is the corresponding projective transformation. $[v]$ is the homogeneous coordinate representation of $v$. In this definition, a projectiity is always a collineation. In the case where the vector spaces are finite dimensional with specified bases, $p$ is expressible in terms of an invertible matrix ($Lv=Av$ where $A$ is an invertible matrix).

 Title projectivity Canonical name Projectivity Date of creation 2013-03-22 15:58:00 Last modified on 2013-03-22 15:58:00 Owner CWoo (3771) Last modified by CWoo (3771) Numerical id 11 Author CWoo (3771) Entry type Definition Classification msc 51A10 Classification msc 51A05 Related topic PolaritiesAndForms Related topic SesquilinearFormsOverGeneralFields Related topic Perspectivity  Related topic ProjectiveSpace Related topic LinearFunction Related topic Collineation Defines projective transformation Defines projective property