# upper set

Let $P$ be a poset and $A$ a subset of $P$. The upper set of $A$ is defined to be the set

 $\{b\in P\mid a\leq b\mbox{ for some }a\in A\},$

and is denoted by $\uparrow\!\!A$. In other words, $\uparrow\!\!A$ is the set of all upper bounds  of elements of $A$.

$\uparrow$ can be viewed as a unary operator on the power set  $2^{P}$ sending $A\in 2^{P}$ to $\uparrow\!\!A\in 2^{P}$. $\uparrow$ has the following properties

1. 1.

$\uparrow\!\!\varnothing=\varnothing$,

2. 2.

$A\subseteq\uparrow\!\!A$,

3. 3.

$\uparrow\uparrow\!\!A=\uparrow\!\!A$, and

4. 4.

if $A\subseteq B$, $\uparrow\!\!A\subseteq\uparrow\!\!B$.

An upper set in $P$ is a subset $A$ such that its upper set is itself: $\uparrow\!\!A=A$. In other words, $A$ is closed with respect to $\leq$ in the sense that if $a\in A$ and $a\leq b$, then $b\in A$. An upper set is also said to be upper closed. For this reason, for any subset $A$ of $P$, the $\uparrow\!\!A$ is also called the upper closure of $A$.

Dually, the lower set (or lower closure) of $A$ is the set of all lower bounds of elements of $A$. The lower set of $A$ is denoted by $\downarrow\!\!A$. If the lower set of $A$ is $A$ itself, then $A$ is a called a lower set, or a lower closed set.

Remarks.

 Title upper set Canonical name UpperSet Date of creation 2013-03-22 15:49:50 Last modified on 2013-03-22 15:49:50 Owner CWoo (3771) Last modified by CWoo (3771) Numerical id 20 Author CWoo (3771) Entry type Definition Classification msc 06A06 Synonym up set Synonym down set Synonym upper closure Synonym lower closure Related topic LatticeIdeal Related topic LatticeFilter Related topic Filter Defines lower set Defines upper closed Defines lower closed