# ascending series

Let $G$ be a group.

An ascending series of $G$ is a family $(H_{\alpha})_{\alpha\leq\beta}$ of subgroups   of $G$, where $\beta$ is an ordinal   , such that $H_{0}=\{1\}$ and $H_{\beta}=G$, and $H_{\alpha}\trianglelefteq H_{\alpha+1}$ for all $\alpha<\beta$, and

 $\bigcup_{\alpha<\delta}H_{\alpha}=H_{\delta}$

whenever $\delta\leq\beta$ is a limit ordinal  .

Given an ascending series $(H_{\alpha})_{\alpha\leq\beta}$, the subgroups $H_{\alpha}$ are called the terms of the series and the quotients (http://planetmath.org/QuotientGroup) $H_{\alpha+1}/H_{\alpha}$ are called the factors of the series.

A subgroup of $G$ that is a term of some ascending series of $G$ is called an ascendant subgroup of $G$. The notation $H\operatorname{asc}G$ is sometimes used to indicate that $H$ is an ascendant subgroup of $G$.

The groups in which every subgroup is ascendant are precisely the groups that satisfy the normalizer condition. Groups in which every cyclic subgroup is ascendant are called Gruenberg groups. It can be shown that in a Gruenberg group, every finitely generated subgroup is ascendant and nilpotent (and so, in particular, Gruenberg groups are locally nilpotent).

An ascending series of $G$ in which all terms are normal in $G$ is called an ascending normal series.

Let $\mathfrak{X}$ be a property of groups. A group is said to be hyper-$\mathfrak{X}$ if it has an ascending normal series whose factors all have property $\mathfrak{X}$. So, for example, a hyperabelian group is a group that has an ascending normal series with abelian  factors. Hyperabelian groups are sometimes called $SI^{*}$-groups.

 Title ascending series Canonical name AscendingSeries Date of creation 2013-03-22 16:14:55 Last modified on 2013-03-22 16:14:55 Owner yark (2760) Last modified by yark (2760) Numerical id 12 Author yark (2760) Entry type Definition Classification msc 20E15 Classification msc 20F22 Related topic DescendingSeries Related topic SubnormalSeries Related topic SubnormalSubgroup Defines ascending normal series Defines ascendant subgroup Defines ascendant Defines hyperabelian group Defines hyperabelian Defines Gruenberg group