Hilbert system
A Hilbert system is a style (formulation) of deductive system that emphasizes the role played by the axioms in the system. Typically, a Hilbert system has many axiom schemes, but only a few, sometimes one, rules of inference^{}. As such, a Hilbert system is also called an axiom system. Below we list three examples of axiom systems in mathematical logic:

•
(intuitionistic propositional logic^{})

–
axiom schemes:

i.
$A\to (B\to A)$

ii.
$(A\to (B\to C))\to ((A\to B)\to (A\to C))$

iii.
$A\to A\vee B$

iv.
$B\to A\vee B$

v.
$(A\to C)\to ((B\to C)\to (A\vee B\to C))$

vi.
$A\wedge B\to A$

vii.
$A\wedge B\to B$

viii.
$A\to (B\to (A\wedge B))$

ix.
$\u27c2\to A$

i.

–
rule of inference: (modus ponens^{}): from $A\to B$ and $A$, we may infer $B$

–

•
(classical predicate logic without equality)

–
axiom schemes:

i.
all of the axiom schemes above, and

ii.
law of double negation: $\mathrm{\neg}(\mathrm{\neg}A)\to A$

iii.
$\forall xA\to A[x/y]$

iv.
$\forall x(A\to B)\to (A\to \forall yB[x/y])$
In the last two axiom schemes, we require that $y$ is free for $x$ in $A$, and in the last axiom scheme, we also require that $x$ does not occur free in $A$.

i.

–
rules of inference:

i.
modus ponens, and

ii.
generalization: from $A$, we may infer $\forall yA[x/y]$, where $y$ is free for $x$ in $A$

i.

–

•
(S4 modal propositional logic)

–
axiom schemes:

i.
all of the axiom schemes in intuitionistic propositional logic, as well as the law of double negation, and

ii.
Axiom K, or the normality axiom: $\mathrm{\square}(A\to B)\to (\mathrm{\square}A\to \mathrm{\square}B)$

iii.
Axiom T: $\mathrm{\square}A\to A$

iv.
Axiom 4: $\mathrm{\square}A\to \mathrm{\square}(\mathrm{\square}A)$

i.

–
rules of inference:

i.
modus ponens, and

ii.
necessitation: from $A$, we may infer $\mathrm{\square}A$

i.

–
where $A,B,C$ above are wellformed formulas, $x,y$ are individual variables, and $\to ,\vee ,\wedge $ are binary, $\mathrm{\square}$ unary, and $\u27c2$ nullary logical connectives in the respective logical systems. The connective $\mathrm{\neg}$ may be defined as $\mathrm{\neg}A:=A\to \u27c2$ for any formula^{} $A$.
Remarks

•
Hilbert systems need not be unique for a given logical system. For example, see this link (http://planetmath.org/LogicalAxiom).

•
For a given logical system, every Hilbert system is deductively equivalent to a Gentzen system: for any axiom $A$ in a Hilbert system $H$, convert it to the sequent $\Rightarrow A$, and for any rule: from ${A}_{1},\mathrm{\dots},{A}_{n}$ we may deduce $B$, convert it to the rule: from $\mathrm{\Delta}\Rightarrow {A}_{1},\mathrm{\dots},{A}_{n}$, we may infer $\mathrm{\Delta}\Rightarrow B$.

•
Since axioms are semantically valid statements, the use of Hilbert systems is more about deriving other semantically valid statements, or theorems^{}, and less about the syntactical analysis of deductions^{} themselves. Outside of structural proof theory, deductive systems a la Hilbert style are used almost exclusively everywhere in mathematics.
References
 1 H. Enderton: A Mathematical Introduction to Logic, Academic Press, San Diego (1972).
 2 A. S. Troelstra, H. Schwichtenberg, Basic Proof Theory, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press (2000)
 3 B. F. Chellas, Modal Logic, An Introduction, Cambridge University Press (1980)
Title  Hilbert system 
Canonical name  HilbertSystem 
Date of creation  20130322 19:13:14 
Last modified on  20130322 19:13:14 
Owner  CWoo (3771) 
Last modified by  CWoo (3771) 
Numerical id  15 
Author  CWoo (3771) 
Entry type  Definition 
Classification  msc 03F03 
Classification  msc 03B99 
Classification  msc 03B22 
Synonym  axiom system 
Related topic  GentzenSystem 
Defines  generalization 
Defines  necessitation 
Defines  double negation 