# orthogonal group

Let $Q$ be a non-degenerate symmetric bilinear form  over the real vector space $\mathbb{R}^{n}$. A linear transformation $T\colon V\to V$ is said to preserve $Q$ if $Q(Tx,Ty)=Q(x,y)$ for all vectors $x,y\in V$. The subgroup   of the general linear group  $\operatorname{GL}(V)$ consisting of all linear transformations that preserve $Q$ is called the orthogonal group  with respect to $Q$, and denoted $\operatorname{O}(n,Q)$.

If $Q$ is also positive definite  (i.e., $Q$ is an inner product), then $\operatorname{O}(n,Q)$ is equivalent to the group of invertible linear transformations that preserve the standard inner product on $\mathbb{R}^{n}$, and in this case the group $\operatorname{O}(n,Q)$ is usually denoted $\operatorname{O}(n)$.

Elements of $\operatorname{O}(n)$ are called orthogonal transformations. One can show that a linear transformation $T$ is an orthogonal transformation if and only if $T^{-1}=T^{\operatorname{T}}$ (i.e., the inverse      of $T$ equals the transpose  of $T$).

Title orthogonal group OrthogonalGroup 2013-03-22 12:25:54 2013-03-22 12:25:54 djao (24) djao (24) 6 djao (24) Definition msc 20G20 orthogonal transformation