terms from foreign languages used in mathematics (html version)
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Following are from foreign that appear in mathematical literature. Each (TeX tabular) contains from the foreign indicated. The foreign are ordered according to how many appear in its corresponding . In each , the are listed in alphabetical .
1 Latin
abbr. | literal^{} | mathematical usage | |
a fortiori | with stronger reason | used in logic to denote an to the effect that because one ascertained fact exists; therefore another which is included in it or analogous to it and is less improbable, unusual, or surprising must also exist | |
a priori | from the former | already known/assumed | |
ad absurdum | to absurdity | an assumption^{} is made in hopes of obtaining a contradiction^{} [reductio ad absurdum^{} is also used] | |
ad infinitum | to infinity^{} | endlessly, infinitely | |
casus irreducibilis | not-reducible case | roots real but not expressible via real http://planetmath.org/Radical5radicals | |
cf. | confer | compare | used to suggest that another work might also be consulted in to that |
et al. | et alii | and others | used in multi-author references but it is customary to include all the authors in the first citation and/or in the bibliography |
e.g. | exempli gratia | for example’s sake | for example |
ibid. | ibidem | in the same | relates to the immediately prior |
i.e. | id est | that is | that is |
inf | inferior, infimum^{} | lowest | limit inferior^{}; greatest lower bound |
inter alia | among other things | among other things | |
loc. cit. | loco citato | in the already mentioned | relates to before the immediately prior citation [probably less frequent than op. cit.] |
lb | logarithmus binaris | binary logarithm | log. in base 2 |
lg | logarithmus generalis | general logarithm^{} | log. in base 10 |
ln | logarithmus naturalis | natural logarithm^{} | log. in base $e$ |
mutatis mutandis | once changing thing to be changed | repeat the for the related case | |
N.B. | nota bene | note well | the following is important |
op. cit. | opere citato | in the work already mentioned | relates to before the immediately prior citation [probably more frequent than loc. cit.] |
QED | quod erat demonstrandum | which was to be demonstrated | end of proof |
QEF | quod erat faciendum | which was to be done | end of construction |
regula falsi | rule of false position | Newton’s method | |
sine qua non | without which it could not be | an essential condition or element; an indispensable thing | |
sup | superior, supremum | uppermost | limit superior^{}; http://planetmath.org/LowestUpperBoundleast upper bound^{} |
viz | videlicet | that is to say, namely | a keynote abbreviation |
2 German
abbr. | literal | mathematical usage | |
Ansatz | approach, attempt | assumed form for an expression | |
eigen | , typical | eigenvalue; eigenvector | |
Grösse, Größe | size, magnitude | Grössencharacter | |
Faltung | folding | convolution | |
im kleinen | in the small | connected im kleinen | |
Nullstellensatz | zero point | zero point | |
Stufe | stair, | stufe of a field | |
Urelement | primeval element | set element which is not a set | |
$V$, ${K}_{4}$ | Vierergruppe | four-group | Klein 4-group |
$\mathbb{Z}$ | Zahlen | numbers | integers |
$Z$ | Zentrum | http://planetmath.org/GroupCentrecenter | http://planetmath.org/GroupCentrecenter (of a group) |
3 French
abbr. | literal | mathematical usage | |
---|---|---|---|
espace | space | (topological) space [see Espace Étalé] | |
étale | slack | étale fundamental group^{}; http://planetmath.org/Etaleétale morphism; étale site | |
étalé | spread out, displayed | http://planetmath.org/EtaleSpace3Étalé space | |
p.p. | presque partout | almost everywhere | http://planetmath.org/AlmostSurelyalmost everywhere |
4 Russian
abbr. | literal | mathematical usage | |
---|---|---|---|
$\partial $ | italic ‘‘д’’ [may be pronounced ‘‘doh’’] | letter ‘‘d’’ | e.g. in $\frac{\partial f}{\partial x}$ [see partial derivative^{}] |
Title | terms from foreign languages^{} used in mathematics (html version) |
Canonical name | TermsFromForeignLanguagesUsedInMathematicshtmlVersion |
Date of creation | 2013-03-22 16:00:07 |
Last modified on | 2013-03-22 16:00:07 |
Owner | Wkbj79 (1863) |
Last modified by | Wkbj79 (1863) |
Numerical id | 53 |
Author | Wkbj79 (1863) |
Entry type | Topic |
Classification | msc 00A99 |
Classification | msc 00A20 |
Related topic | TermsFromForeignLanguagesUsedInMathematicsPageImagesVersion |
Related topic | MathematicsVocabulary |
Related topic | ApplicationOfCauchyCriterionForConvergence |
Defines | a fortiori |
Defines | a priori |
Defines | ad absurdum |
Defines | ad infinitum |
Defines | Ansatz |
Defines | cf. |
Defines | confer |
Defines | doh |
Defines | eigen |
Defines | espace |
Defines | et al. |
Defines | et alii |
Defines | étale |
Defines | étalé |
Defines | e.g. |
Defines | exempli gratia |
Defines | ibid. |
Defines | ibidem |
Defines | i.e. |
Defines | id est |
Defines | inter alia |
Defines | logarithmus binaris |
Defines | binary logarithm |
Defines | logarithmus generalis |
Defines | gen |