terms from foreign languages used in mathematics (page images version)
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Following are from foreign that appear in mathematical literature. Each (TeX tabular) contains from the foreign indicated. The foreign are ordered according to how many appear in its corresponding . In each , the are listed in alphabetical .
1 Latin
abbr. | literal^{} | mathematical usage | |
a fortiori | with stronger reason | used in logic to denote an | |
to the effect that | |||
because one ascertained fact exists; | |||
therefore another which is | |||
included in it or analogous to is | |||
and is less improbable, unusual, | |||
or surprising must also exist | |||
a priori | from the former | already known/assumed | |
ad absurdum | to absurdity | an assumption^{} is made in hopes of | |
obtaining a contradiction^{} | |||
[reductio ad absurdum^{} is also used] | |||
ad infinitum | to infinity^{} | endlessly, infinitely | |
casus irreducibilis | not-reducible case | roots real but not | |
expressible via real http://planetmath.org/Radical5radicals | |||
cf. | confer | compare | used to suggest that another |
work might also be consulted | |||
in to that | |||
et al. | et alii | and others | used in multi-author references |
but it is customary to include | |||
all the authors in the first | |||
citation and/or in the | |||
bibliography | |||
e.g. | exempli gratia | for example’s sake | for example |
ibid. | ibidem | in the same | relates to the |
immediately prior | |||
i.e. | id est | that is | that is |
inf | inferior, infimum^{} | lowest | limit inferior^{}; greatest lower bound |
inter alia | among other things | among other things | |
loc. cit. | loco citato | in the already mentioned | relates to before the |
immediately prior citation | |||
[probably less frequent | |||
than op. cit.] | |||
lb | logarithmus binaris | binary logarithm | log. in base 2 |
lg | logarithmus generalis | general logarithm^{} | log. in base 10 |
ln | logarithmus naturalis | natural logarithm^{} | log. in base $e$ |
mutatis mutandis | once changing thing to be changed | repeat the | |
for the related case | |||
N.B. | nota bene | note well | the following is important |
op. cit. | opere citato | in the work already mentioned | relates to before the |
immediately prior citation | |||
[probably more frequent | |||
than loc. cit.] | |||
QED | quod erat demonstrandum | which was to be demonstrated | end of proof |
QEF | quod erat faciendum | which was to be done | end of construction |
regula falsi | rule of false position | Newton’s method | |
sine qua non | without which it could not be | an essential condition | |
or element; an indispensable thing | |||
sup | superior, supremum | uppermost | limit superior^{}, http://planetmath.org/LowestUpperBoundleast upper bound^{} |
viz | videlicet | that is to say, namely | a keynote abbreviation |
2 German
abbr. | literal | mathematical usage | |
Ansatz | approach, attempt | assumed form for an expression | |
eigen | , typical | eigenvalue; eigenvector | |
Grösse, Größe | size, magnitude | Grössencharacter | |
im kleinen | in the small | connected im kleinen | |
Nullstellensatz | zero point | zero point | |
Stufe | stair, | stufe of a field | |
Urelement | primeval element | set element which is not a set | |
$V$, ${K}_{4}$ | Vierergruppe | four-group | Klein 4-group |
$\mathbb{Z}$ | Zahlen | numbers | integers |
$Z$ | Zentrum | http://planetmath.org/GroupCentrecenter | http://planetmath.org/GroupCentrecenter (of a group) |
3 French
abbr. | literal | mathematical usage | |
---|---|---|---|
espace | space | (topological) space [see Espace Étalé] | |
étale | slack | étale fundamental group^{}; http://planetmath.org/Etaleétale morphism; étale site | |
étalé | spread out, displayed | http://planetmath.org/EtaleSpace3Étalé space | |
p.p. | presque partout | almost everywhere | http://planetmath.org/AlmostSurelyalmost everywhere |
4 Russian
abbr. | literal | mathematical usage | |
---|---|---|---|
$\partial $ | italic ‘‘д’’ [may be pronounced ‘‘doh’’] | letter ‘‘d’’ | e.g. in $\frac{\partial f}{\partial x}$ [see partial derivative^{}] |
Title | terms from foreign languages^{} used in mathematics (page images version) |
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Canonical name | TermsFromForeignLanguagesUsedInMathematicspageImagesVersion |
Date of creation | 2013-03-22 16:06:45 |
Last modified on | 2013-03-22 16:06:45 |
Owner | Wkbj79 (1863) |
Last modified by | Wkbj79 (1863) |
Numerical id | 37 |
Author | Wkbj79 (1863) |
Entry type | Topic |
Classification | msc 00A20 |
Classification | msc 00A99 |
Related topic | TermsFromForeignLanguagesUsedInMathematics |
Related topic | MathematicsVocabulary |