terms from foreign languages used in mathematics (html version)

This entry is best viewed in html . For the page version, http://planetmath.org/TermsFromForeignLanguagesUsedInMathematicsPageImagesVersionclick here.

Following are from foreign that appear in mathematical literature. Each (TeX tabular) contains from the foreign indicated. The foreign are ordered according to how many appear in its corresponding . In each , the are listed in alphabetical .

1 Latin

abbr. literalMathworldPlanetmath mathematical usage
a fortiori with stronger reason used in logic to denote an to the effect that because one ascertained fact exists; therefore another which is included in it or analogous to it and is less improbable, unusual, or surprising must also exist
a priori from the former already known/assumed
ad absurdum to absurdity an assumptionPlanetmathPlanetmath is made in hopes of obtaining a contradictionMathworldPlanetmathPlanetmath [reductio ad absurdumMathworldPlanetmath is also used]
ad infinitum to infinityMathworldPlanetmath endlessly, infinitely
casus irreducibilis not-reducible case roots real but not expressible via real http://planetmath.org/Radical5radicals
cf. confer compare used to suggest that another work might also be consulted in to that
et al. et alii and others used in multi-author references but it is customary to include all the authors in the first citation and/or in the bibliography
e.g. exempli gratia for example’s sake for example
ibid. ibidem in the same relates to the immediately prior
i.e. id est that is that is
inf inferior, infimumMathworldPlanetmath lowest limit inferiorMathworldPlanetmath; greatest lower bound
inter alia among other things among other things
loc. cit. loco citato in the already mentioned relates to before the immediately prior citation [probably less frequent than op. cit.]
lb logarithmus binaris binary logarithm log. in base 2
lg logarithmus generalis general logarithmMathworldPlanetmath log. in base 10
ln logarithmus naturalis natural logarithmMathworldPlanetmath log. in base e
mutatis mutandis once changing thing to be changed repeat the for the related case
N.B. nota bene note well the following is important
op. cit. opere citato in the work already mentioned relates to before the immediately prior citation [probably more frequent than loc. cit.]
QED quod erat demonstrandum which was to be demonstrated end of proof
QEF quod erat faciendum which was to be done end of construction
regula falsi rule of false position Newton’s method
sine qua non without which it could not be an essential condition or element; an indispensable thing
sup superior, supremum uppermost limit superiorMathworldPlanetmath; http://planetmath.org/LowestUpperBoundleast upper boundMathworldPlanetmath
viz videlicet that is to say, namely a keynote abbreviation

2 German

abbr. literal mathematical usage
Ansatz approach, attempt assumed form for an expression
eigen , typical eigenvalue; eigenvector
Grösse, Größe size, magnitude Grössencharacter
Faltung folding convolution
im kleinen in the small connected im kleinen
Nullstellensatz zero point zero point
Stufe stair, stufe of a field
Urelement primeval element set element which is not a set
V, K4 Vierergruppe four-group Klein 4-group
Zahlen numbers integers
Z Zentrum http://planetmath.org/GroupCentrecenter http://planetmath.org/GroupCentrecenter (of a group)

3 French

abbr. literal mathematical usage
espace space (topological) space [see Espace Étalé]
étale slack étale fundamental groupMathworldPlanetmath; http://planetmath.org/Etaleétale morphism; étale site
étalé spread out, displayed http://planetmath.org/EtaleSpace3Étalé space
p.p. presque partout almost everywhere http://planetmath.org/AlmostSurelyalmost everywhere

4 Russian

abbr. literal mathematical usage
italic ‘‘д’’ [may be pronounced ‘‘doh’’] letter ‘‘d’’ e.g. in fx [see partial derivativeMathworldPlanetmath]
Title terms from foreign languagesPlanetmathPlanetmath used in mathematics (html version)
Canonical name TermsFromForeignLanguagesUsedInMathematicshtmlVersion
Date of creation 2013-03-22 16:00:07
Last modified on 2013-03-22 16:00:07
Owner Wkbj79 (1863)
Last modified by Wkbj79 (1863)
Numerical id 53
Author Wkbj79 (1863)
Entry type Topic
Classification msc 00A99
Classification msc 00A20
Related topic TermsFromForeignLanguagesUsedInMathematicsPageImagesVersion
Related topic MathematicsVocabulary
Related topic ApplicationOfCauchyCriterionForConvergence
Defines a fortiori
Defines a priori
Defines ad absurdum
Defines ad infinitum
Defines Ansatz
Defines cf.
Defines confer
Defines doh
Defines eigen
Defines espace
Defines et al.
Defines et alii
Defines étale
Defines étalé
Defines e.g.
Defines exempli gratia
Defines ibid.
Defines ibidem
Defines i.e.
Defines id est
Defines inter alia
Defines logarithmus binaris
Defines binary logarithm
Defines logarithmus generalis
Defines gen