# Berlekamp-Massey algorithm

###### Definition 1.

Suppose the infinite   sequence $a$ with elements from a field $K$ has the property that there exist constants $c_{1},\ldots,c_{k}$ in $K$ such that, for all $t>k$,

 $a_{t}=a_{t-1}c_{1}+a_{t-2}c_{2}+...+a_{t-k}c_{k}.$

Then $a$ is called a linearly recurrent sequence.

###### Definition 2.

Given a linearly recurrent sequence $a$, suppose $c_{0}\ldots c_{k}\in K$ with $c_{0}\neq 0$ satisfy, for all $t>k,$

 $c_{0}a_{t}=a_{t-1}c_{1}+a_{t-2}c_{2}+...+a_{t-k}c_{k}.$

 $c_{0}x^{k}-c_{1}x^{k-1}-c_{2}x^{k-2}-...-c_{k}$

###### Proposition 1.

The annihilators of $a$ form an ideal of $K[x]$.

###### Definition 3.

To find the minimal polynomial, we need to be given an upper bound $m$ on its degree; having done so, the minimal polynomial is uniquely determined by the first $2m$ elements of $a$ (since we need to get $m$ equations to solve for the unknowns $c_{1},\ldots c_{m}$).

There is another way to determine the minimal polynomial, originally presented by Dornstetter, which uses the Euclidean Algorithm  . It can be shown that the characteristic polynomial   of a sequence is the unique monic polynomial $C(x)$ of least degree for which the infinite product

 $C(x)(a_{1}+a_{2}x+a_{3}x^{2}+...)$

has finitely many nonzero terms. (In fact, the nonzero terms will have coefficients up to $x^{k-1}$ where $k$ is the degree of $C$).

We can rewrite this as

 $C(x)\cdot(a_{1}+a_{2}x+...+a_{2m}x^{2m-1})-Q(x)\cdot x^{2m}=R(x)$

where $R(x)$ is a remainder polynomial of degree ¡ $m$, and $Q(x)$ is a quotient polynomial. Denote by $A(x)$ the sum $\Sigma_{i=1}^{2m}a_{i}x^{i-1}$.

This is where the Euclidean Algorithm comes in; if we take the GCD of $A(x)$ and $x^{2m}$, keeping track of remainders, we get two sequences $P_{i}(x),Q_{i}(x)$ such that

 $P_{i}(x)\cdot A(x)-Q_{i}(x)\cdot x^{2m}$

forms a series of polynomials whose degree is decreasing; as soon as this degree is less than $m$, we have the needed polynomials with $C=P_{i},Q=Q_{i}$.

There is more info about the Extended Euclidean Algorithm in “Modern Computer Algebra” by von zur Gathen and Gerhard.

(Berlekamp’s algorithm proper to come)

The original algorithm is from Algebraic Coding Theory by Elwyn R. Berlekamp, McGraw-Hill, 1968. Its application to linearly recurrent sequences was noted by J.L.Massey, in “Shift-register synthesis and BCH decoding”, 1969.

 Title Berlekamp-Massey algorithm Canonical name BerlekampMasseyAlgorithm Date of creation 2013-03-22 14:28:55 Last modified on 2013-03-22 14:28:55 Owner mathcam (2727) Last modified by mathcam (2727) Numerical id 7 Author mathcam (2727) Entry type Definition Classification msc 15A03 Classification msc 11B37 Related topic RecurrenceRelation Related topic MapleImplementationOfBerlekampMasseyAlgorithm Defines linear recurrent sequence Defines minimal polynomial of a sequence Defines annihilator