# duality in mathematics

## 0.1 Duality in mathematics

The following is a mathematical topic entry on different types of duality encountered in different areas of mathematics; accordingly there is a string of distinct definitions associated with this topic rather than a single, general definition, although some of the linked definitions, that is, categorical duality, are more general than others.

### 0.1.1 Duality definitions in mathematics:

1. 1.

Categorical duality and Dual category (http://planetmath.org/IndexOfCategoryTheory): reversing arrows

2. 2.
3. 3.

Double duality

4. 4.

Triality

5. 5.

Self-duality

6. 6.
7. 7.
8. 8.

Poincaré-Lefschetz duality, and Alexander-Lefschetz duality

9. 9.

Alexander duality: J. W. Alexander’s duality theory (cca. 1915)

10. 10.

Serre duality : example- in the proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for curves (http://planetmath.org/ProofOfRiemannRochTheorem).

11. 11.
12. 12.

Stone duality: Boolean algebras and Stone spaces

13. 13.

Dual numbers- as in an associative algebra; (almost synonymous with double)

14. 14.

Geometric dualities: dual polyhedron, dual of a planar graph, duality in order theory, the Legendre transformation -an application of the duality between points and lines; generalized Legendre, that is, the Legendre-Fenchel transformation.

15. 15.

Hamilton–Lagrange duality in theoretical mechanics and optics

16. 16.
17. 17.

Dual space example (http://planetmath.org/DoubleDualEmbedding)

18. 18.

Dual homomorphisms (http://planetmath.org/DualHomomorphism)

19. 19.

Duality of Projective Geometry (http://planetmath.org/Polarity2)

20. 20.

Analytic dualities

21. 21.
22. 22.
23. 23.

Duality as a homological mirror symmetry

24. 24.
25. 25.

Hodge dual

26. 26.

Duality of locally compact groups (http://planetmath.org/CompactQuantumGroup)

27. 27.
28. 28.

Tannaka-Krein duality (http://planetmath.org/CompactQuantumGroup): for compact matrix pseudogroups and non-commutative topological groups; its generalization  leads to quantum groups       in Quantum theories  ; Tannaka’s theorem provides the means to reconstruct a compact group $G$ from its category of representations $\Pi(G)$; Krein’s theorem shows which categories arise as a dual object to a compact group; the finite-dimensional representations of Drinfel’d ’s quantum groups form a braided monoidal category, whereas $\Pi(G)$ is a symmetric monoidal category.

29. 29.
30. 30.

Contravariant dualities

31. 31.

Weak duality, example : weak duality theorem in linear programming (http://planetmath.org/LinearProgrammingProblem); dual problems in optimization theory

32. 32.

Dual codes

33. 33.

Duality in Electrical Engineering

### 0.1.2 Examples of duals:

1. 1.

a category $\mathcal{C}$ and its dual $\mathcal{C}^{op}$

2. 2.
3. 3.

Dual Abelian variety

4. 4.

Example of a dual space theorem (http://planetmath.org/DualSpaceSeparatesPoints)

5. 5.

Example of Pontryagin duality (http://planetmath.org/DualGroupOfGIsHomeomorphicToTheCharacterSpaceOfL1G)

6. 6.

initial and final object

7. 7.
8. 8.
9. 9.

## References

 Title duality in mathematics Canonical name DualityInMathematics Date of creation 2013-03-22 18:24:50 Last modified on 2013-03-22 18:24:50 Owner bci1 (20947) Last modified by bci1 (20947) Numerical id 51 Author bci1 (20947) Entry type Topic Classification msc 51A10 Classification msc 14F25 Classification msc 55M05 Classification msc 18-00 Synonym categorical duality Synonym Poincaré duality Synonym polarity Related topic IndexOfCategoryTheory Related topic SerreDuality Related topic StoneSpace Related topic CompactQuantumGroup Related topic PoincareDuality Related topic Polarity2 Related topic DualOfACoalgebraIsAnAlgebra Related topic GrassmanHopfAlgebrasAndTheirDualCoAlgebras Related topic PontryaginDuality Related topic LinearProgrammingProblem Related topic IdealInvertingInPruferRing Related topic IndexOfCategories