# the arithmetic of elliptic curves

## The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves

An over a field $K$ is a projective nonsingular  curve $E$ defined over $K$ of genus $1$ together with a point $O\in E$ defined over $K$. In the simple case $K=\mathbb{Q}$ every elliptic curve is isomorphic   (over $\mathbb{Q}$) to a curve defined by an equation of the form:

 $y^{2}=x^{3}+Ax+B$

where $A,B$ are integers. The most remarkable feature of an elliptic curve is the fact that the group of points can be given the structure  of a group.

The theory of elliptic curves is a very rich mix of algebraic geometry   and number theory  (arithmetic geometry). As in many other areas of number theory, the concepts  are simple to state but the theory is extremely deep and beautiful. The intrinsic arithmetic of the points on an elliptic curve is absolutely compelling. The most prominent mathematicians of our time have contributed in the development of the theory. The ultimate goal of the theory is to completely understand the structure of the points on the elliptic curve over any field $F$ and being able to find them.

### 1.1 Basic Definitions

1. 1.

For a basic exposition of the subject the reader should start with the entry elliptic curve (http://planetmath.org/EllipticCurve) (defines elliptic curve, the group law and gives some examples with graphs, also treats elliptic curves over the complex numbers   ).

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One of the most important objects that one can associate to an elliptic curve is the $L$-series (http://planetmath.org/LSeriesOfAnEllipticCurve) (the entry defines the $L$-series of an elliptic curve (http://planetmath.org/LSeriesOfAnEllipticCurve) and also talks about analytic continuation).

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The height matrix and the elliptic regulator of an elliptic curve.

### 1.2 Elliptic Curves over Finite Fields

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The criterion of Néron-Ogg-Shafarevich.

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Hasse’s bound for elliptic curves over finite fields.

### 1.3 The Mordell-Weil Group $E(K)$

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The structure of $E(K)$ is given by the Mordell-Weil theorem  (see also this entry (http://planetmath.org/RankOfAnEllipticCurve)). The main two ingredients of the proof of the theorem are the concept of height function and the so-called descent theorem.

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The free rank of the abelian group  $E(K)$ is called the rank of an elliptic curve (http://planetmath.org/RankOfAnEllipticCurve) (the entry contains examples).

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### 1.4 The Torsion Subgroup of $E(K)$

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A way to determine the torsion group: the torsion subgroup of an elliptic curve injects in the reduction of the curve.

### 1.5 Computing the Rank

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A bound for the rank of an elliptic curve.

### 1.6 Complex Multiplication

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Definition of the endomorphism ring (http://planetmath.org/EndomorphismRing) and complex multiplication.

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Definition of Grössencharacters, in general.

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## References

• 1 James Milne, Elliptic Curves, online course notes. http://www.jmilne.org/math/CourseNotes/math679.htmlhttp://www.jmilne.org/math/CourseNotes/math679.html
• 2 Joseph H. Silverman, . Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986.
• 3 Joseph H. Silverman, Advanced Topics in the Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994.
• 4 Goro Shimura, Introduction to the Arithmetic Theory of Automorphic Functions. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1971.

Note: If you want to contribute to this entry, please send an email to the author (alozano).

 Title the arithmetic of elliptic curves Canonical name TheArithmeticOfEllipticCurves Date of creation 2013-03-22 15:06:19 Last modified on 2013-03-22 15:06:19 Owner alozano (2414) Last modified by alozano (2414) Numerical id 15 Author alozano (2414) Entry type Topic Classification msc 14H52 Classification msc 11G05 Synonym concepts in the theory of elliptic curves Related topic EllipticCurve Related topic CriterionOfNeronOggShafarevich Related topic HassesBoundForEllipticCurvesOverFiniteFields Related topic BirchAndSwinnertonDyerConjecture2 Related topic RankOfAnEllipticCurve Related topic MazursTheoremOnTorsionOfEllipticCurves Related topic TorsionSubgroupOfAnEllipticCurveInjectsInTheReductionOfTheCurve