# partially ordered algebraic system

Let $A$ be a poset. Recall a function $f$ on $A$ is said to be

• order-preserving (or isotone) provided that $f(a)\leq f(b)$, or

• order-reversing (or antitone) provided that $f(a)\geq f(b)$, or

whenever $a\leq b$. Furthermore, $f$ is called monotone if $f$ is either isotone or antitone.

For every function $f$ on $A$, we denote it to be $\uparrow$, $\downarrow$, or $\updownarrow$ according to whether it is isotone, antitone, or both. The following are some easy consequences:

• $\uparrow\circ\downarrow=\downarrow\circ\uparrow=\downarrow$ (meaning that the composition of an isotone and an antitone maps is antitone),

• $\uparrow\circ\uparrow=\downarrow\circ\downarrow=\uparrow$ (meaning that the composition of two isotone or two antitone maps is isotone),

• $f$ is $\updownarrow$ iff it is a constant on any chain in $A$, and if this is the case, for every $a\in A$, $f^{-1}(a)$ is a maximal chain in $A$.

The notion above can be generalized to $n$-ary operations  on a poset $A$. An $n$-ary operation $f$ on a poset $A$ is said to be isotone, antitone, or monotone iff when $f$ is isotone, antitone, or monotone with respect to each of its $n$ variables. We continue to use to arrow notations above to denote $n$-ary monotone functions. For example, a ternary function that is $(\uparrow,\downarrow,\uparrow)$ is isotone with respect to its first and third variables, and antitone with respect to its second variable.

Definition. A partially ordered algebraic system is an algebraic system $\mathcal{A}=(A,O)$ such that $A$ is a poset, and every operation $f\in O$ on $A$ is monotone. A partially ordered algebraic system is also called a partially ordered algebra   , or a po-algebra for short.

Examples of po-algebras are po-groups, po-rings, and po-semigroups. In all three cases, the multiplication  operations are $(\uparrow,\uparrow)$, as well as the addition operation in a po-ring.. In the case of a po-group, the multiplicative inverse operation is $\downarrow$, as well as the additive inverse operation in a po-ring.

Another example is an ordered vector space $V$ over a field $k$. The underlying universe  is $V$ (not $k$). Addition over $V$ is, like the other examples above, isotone. Each element $r\in k$ acts as a unary operator on $V$, given by $r(v)=rv$, the scalar multiplication of $r$ and $v$. As $k$ is itself a poset, it can be partitioned into three sets: the positive cone $P(k)$ of $k$, the negative cone $-P(k)$, and $\{0\}$. Then $r\in P(k)$ iff it is $\uparrow$ as a unary operator, $r\in-P(k)$ iff it is $\downarrow$, and $r=0$ iff it is $\updownarrow$.

Remarks

## References

• 1 L. Fuchs, Partially Ordered Algebraic Systems, Addison-Wesley, (1963).
Title partially ordered algebraic system PartiallyOrderedAlgebraicSystem 2013-03-22 19:03:19 2013-03-22 19:03:19 CWoo (3771) CWoo (3771) 8 CWoo (3771) Definition msc 06F99 msc 08C99 msc 08A99 AlgebraicSystem