Jordan-Banach and Jordan-Lie algebras
0.0.1 Definitions of Jordan-Banach, Jordan-Lie, and Jordan-Banach-Lie algebras
Firstly, a specific algebra consists of a vector space over a ground field (typically or ) equipped with a bilinear and distributive multiplication . Note that is not necessarily commutative or associative.
A Jordan algebra (over ), is an algebra over for which:
for all elements of the algebra.
It is worthwhile noting now that in the algebraic theory of Jordan algebras, an important role is played by the Jordan triple product as defined by:
which is linear in each factor and for which . Certain examples entail setting .
0.0.2 Poisson algebra
By a Poisson algebra we mean a Jordan algebra in which is associative. The usual algebraic types of morphisms automorphism, isomorphism, etc.) apply to Jordan-Lie (Poisson) algebras (see Landsman, 2003).
Consider the classical configuration space of a moving particle whose phase space is the cotangent bundle , and for which the space of (classical) observables is taken to be the real vector space of smooth functions
which can be easily seen to satisfy the Liebniz rule above. The axioms above then set the stage of passage to quantum mechanical systems which the parameter suggests.
0.0.3 C*–algebras (C*–A), JLB and JBW Algebras
and , we have
A *–algebra is said to be a complex associative algebra together with an involution .
A C*–algebra is a simultaneously a *–algebra and a Banach space , satisfying for all :
We can easily see that . By the above axioms a C*–algebra is a special case of a Banach algebra where the latter requires the above norm property but not the involution (*) property. Given Banach spaces the space of (bounded) linear operators from to forms a Banach space, where for , the space is a Banach algebra with respect to the norm
In quantum field theory one may start with a Hilbert space , and consider the Banach algebra of bounded linear operators which given to be closed under the usual algebraic operations and taking adjoints, forms a –algebra of bounded operators, where the adjoint operation functions as the involution, and for we have :
By a morphism between C*–algebras we mean a linear map , such that for all , the following hold :
where a bijective morphism is said to be an isomorphism (in which case it is then an isometry). A fundamental relation is that any norm-closed –algebra in is a C*–algebra, and conversely, any C*–algebra is isomorphic to a norm–closed –algebra in for some Hilbert space .
For a C*–algebra , we say that is self–adjoint if . Accordingly, the self–adjoint part of is a real vector space since we can decompose as :
A Jordan–Banach algebra (a JB–algebra for short) is both a real Jordan algebra and a Banach space, where for all , we have
A JLB–algebra is a JB–algebra together with a Poisson bracket for which it becomes a Jordan–Lie algebra for some . Such JLB–algebras often constitute the real part of several widely studied complex associative algebras.
For the purpose of quantization, there are fundamental relations between , JLB and Poisson algebras.
For further details see Landsman (2003) (Thm. 1.1.9).
A JB–algebra which is monotone complete and admits a separating set of normal sets is called a JBW-algebra. These appeared in the work of von Neumann who developed a (orthomodular) lattice theory of projections on on which to study quantum logic (see later). BW-algebras have the following property: whereas is a J(L)B–algebra, the self adjoint part of a von Neumann algebra is a JBW–algebra.
A JC–algebra is a norm closed real linear subspace of which is closed under the bilinear product (non–commutative and nonassociative). Since any norm closed Jordan subalgebra of is a JB–algebra, it is natural to specify the exact relationship between JB and JC–algebras, at least in finite dimensions. In order to do this, one introduces the ‘exceptional’ algebra , the algebra of Hermitian matrices with values in the octonians . Then a finite dimensional JB–algebra is a JC–algebra if and only if it does not contain as a (direct) summand .
The above definitions and constructions follow the approach of Alfsen and Schultz (2003) and Landsman (1998).
- 1 Alfsen, E.M. and F. W. Schultz: Geometry of State Spaces of Operator Algebras, Birkhäuser, Boston-Basel-Berlin.(2003).
|Title||Jordan-Banach and Jordan-Lie algebras|
|Date of creation||2013-03-22 18:14:05|
|Last modified on||2013-03-22 18:14:05|
|Last modified by||bci1 (20947)|
|Synonym||quantum operator algebras|