# Jordan-Banach and Jordan-Lie algebras

## 0.0.1 Definitions of Jordan-Banach, Jordan-Lie, and Jordan-Banach-Lie algebras

\begin{aligned} \displaystyle S\circ T&\displaystyle=T\circ S~{},\\ \displaystyle S\circ(T\circ S^{2})&\displaystyle=(S\circ T)\circ S^{2}\end{aligned},

for all elements $S,T$ of the algebra.

It is worthwhile noting now that in the algebraic theory of Jordan algebras, an important role is played by the Jordan triple product $\{STW\}$ as defined by:

$\{STW\}=(S\circ T)\circ W+(T\circ W)\circ S-(S\circ W)\circ T~{},$

which is linear in each factor and for which $\{STW\}=\{WTS\}$ . Certain examples entail setting $\{STW\}=\frac{1}{2}\{STW+WTS\}$ .

$\{~{},~{}\}$, satisfying :

• 1.

for all $S,T\in\mathfrak{A}_{\mathbb{R}}$, \begin{aligned} \displaystyle S\circ T&\displaystyle=T\circ S\\ \displaystyle\{S,T\}&\displaystyle=-\{T,S\}\end{aligned}

• 2.

$\{S,T\circ W\}=\{S,T\}\circ W+T\circ\{S,W\}$ for all $S,T,W\in\mathfrak{A}_{\mathbb{R}}$, along with

• 3.

$\{S,\{T,W\}\}=\{\{S,T\},W\}+\{T,\{S,W\}\}$

• 4.

$(S\circ T)\circ W-S\circ(T\circ W)=\frac{1}{4}\hslash^{2}\{\{S,W\},T\}~{}.$

## 0.0.2 Poisson algebra

Consider the classical configuration space $Q=\mathbb{R}^{3}$ of a moving particle whose phase space is the cotangent bundle $T^{*}\mathbb{R}^{3}\cong\mathbb{R}^{6}$, and for which the space of (classical) observables is taken to be the real vector space of smooth functions  $\mathfrak{A}^{0}_{\mathbb{R}}=C^{\infty}(T^{*}R^{3},\mathbb{R})$

. The usual pointwise multiplication of functions $fg$ defines a bilinear map on $\mathfrak{A}^{0}_{\mathbb{R}}$, which is seen to be commutative and associative. Further, the Poisson bracket on functions

 $\{f,g\}:=\frac{\partial f}{\partial p^{i}}\frac{\partial g}{\partial q_{i}}-% \frac{\partial f}{\partial q_{i}}\frac{\partial g}{\partial p^{i}}~{},$

which can be easily seen to satisfy the Liebniz rule above. The axioms above then set the stage of passage to quantum mechanical systems which the parameter $k^{2}$ suggests.

## 0.0.3 C*–algebras (C*–A), JLB and JBW Algebras

$S,T\in\mathfrak{A}$ and $\lambda\in\mathbb{C}$, we have $T^{**}=T~{},~{}(ST)^{*}=T^{*}S^{*}~{},~{}(\lambda T)^{*}=\bar{\lambda}T^{*}~{}.$

A *–algebra is said to be a complex associative algebra together with an involution $*$ .

A C*–algebra is a simultaneously a *–algebra and a Banach space  $\mathfrak{A}$, satisfying for all $S,T\in\mathfrak{A}$ :

\begin{aligned} \displaystyle\|S\circ T\|&\displaystyle\leq\|S\|~{}\|T\|~{},\\ \displaystyle\|T^{*}T\|^{2}&\displaystyle=\|T\|^{2}~{}.\end{aligned}

We can easily see that $\|A^{*}\|=\|A\|$ . By the above axioms a C*–algebra is a special case of a Banach algebra  where the latter requires the above norm property but not the involution (*) property. Given Banach spaces $E,F$ the space $\mathcal{L}(E,F)$ of (bounded) linear operators from $E$ to $F$ forms a Banach space, where for $E=F$, the space $\mathcal{L}(E)=\mathcal{L}(E,E)$ is a Banach algebra with respect to the norm

$\|T\|:=\sup\{\|Tu\|:u\in E~{},~{}\|u\|=1\}~{}.$

$\|T\|:=\sup\{(Tu,Tu):u\in H~{},~{}(u,u)=1\}~{},$ and $\|Tu\|^{2}=(Tu,Tu)=(u,T^{*}Tu)\leq\|T^{*}T\|~{}\|u\|^{2}~{}.$

By a morphism between C*–algebras $\mathfrak{A},\mathfrak{B}$ we mean a linear map $\phi:\mathfrak{A}{\longrightarrow}\mathfrak{B}$, such that for all $S,T\in\mathfrak{A}$, the following hold :

$\phi(ST)=\phi(S)\phi(T)~{},~{}\phi(T^{*})=\phi(T)^{*}~{},$

where a bijective  morphism is said to be an isomorphism (in which case it is then an isometry). A fundamental relation    is that any norm-closed $*$–algebra $\mathcal{A}$ in $\mathcal{L}(H)$ is a C*–algebra, and conversely, any C*–algebra is isomorphic to a norm–closed $*$–algebra in $\mathcal{L}(H)$ for some Hilbert space $H$ .

For a C*–algebra $\mathfrak{A}$, we say that $T\in\mathfrak{A}$ is self–adjoint if $T=T^{*}$ . Accordingly, the self–adjoint part $\mathfrak{A}^{sa}$ of $\mathfrak{A}$ is a real vector space since we can decompose $T\in\mathfrak{A}^{sa}$ as  :

$T=T^{\prime}+T^{{}^{\prime\prime}}:=\frac{1}{2}(T+T^{*})+\iota(\frac{-\iota}{2% })(T-T^{*})~{}.$

A commutative C*–algebra is one for which the associative multiplication is commutative. Given a commutative C*–algebra $\mathfrak{A}$, we have $\mathfrak{A}\cong C(Y)$, the algebra of continuous functions   on a compact Hausdorff space $Y~{}$.

A Jordan–Banach algebra (a JB–algebra for short) is both a real Jordan algebra and a Banach space, where for all $S,T\in\mathfrak{A}_{\mathbb{R}}$, we have

\begin{aligned} \displaystyle\|S\circ T\|&\displaystyle\leq\|S\|~{}\|T\|~{},\\ \displaystyle\|T\|^{2}&\displaystyle\leq\|S^{2}+T^{2}\|~{}.\end{aligned}

A JLB–algebra is a JB–algebra $\mathfrak{A}_{\mathbb{R}}$ together with a Poisson bracket for which it becomes a Jordan–Lie algebra for some $\hslash^{2}\geq 0$ . Such JLB–algebras often constitute the real part of several widely studied complex associative algebras.

For the purpose of quantization, there are fundamental relations between $\mathfrak{A}^{sa}$, JLB and Poisson algebras.

For further details see Landsman (2003) (Thm. 1.1.9).

A JB–algebra which is monotone  complete    and admits a separating set of normal sets is called a JBW-algebra. These appeared in the work of von Neumann who developed a (orthomodular) lattice theory of projections  on $\mathcal{L}(H)$ on which to study quantum logic  (see later). BW-algebras have the following property: whereas $\mathfrak{A}^{sa}$ is a J(L)B–algebra, the self adjoint part of a von Neumann algebra    is a JBW–algebra.

A JC–algebra is a norm closed real linear subspace of $\mathcal{L}(H)^{sa}$ which is closed under the bilinear product   $S\circ T=\frac{1}{2}(ST+TS)$ (non–commutative and nonassociative). Since any norm closed Jordan subalgebra of $\mathcal{L}(H)^{sa}$ is a JB–algebra, it is natural to specify the exact relationship between JB and JC–algebras, at least in finite dimensions    . In order to do this, one introduces the ‘exceptional’ algebra $H_{3}({\mathbb{O}})$, the algebra of $3\times 3$ Hermitian matrices  with values in the octonians $\mathbb{O}$ . Then a finite dimensional JB–algebra is a JC–algebra if and only if it does not contain $H_{3}({\mathbb{O}})$ as a (direct) summand .

The above definitions and constructions follow the approach of Alfsen and Schultz (2003) and Landsman (1998).

## References

• 1 Alfsen, E.M. and F. W. Schultz: Geometry of State Spaces of Operator Algebras, Birkhäuser, Boston-Basel-Berlin.(2003).
 Title Jordan-Banach and Jordan-Lie algebras Canonical name JordanBanachAndJordanLieAlgebras Date of creation 2013-03-22 18:14:05 Last modified on 2013-03-22 18:14:05 Owner bci1 (20947) Last modified by bci1 (20947) Numerical id 32 Author bci1 (20947) Entry type Topic Classification msc 08A99 Classification msc 08A05 Classification msc 08A70 Synonym quantum operator algebras  Related topic Algebras2 Related topic CAlgebra3 Related topic AlgebraicCategoryOfLMnLogicAlgebras Related topic NonAbelianStructures Related topic AbelianCategory Related topic AxiomsForAnAbelianCategory Related topic GeneralizedVanKampenTheoremsHigherDimensional Related topic AxiomaticTheoryOfSupercategories Related topic AlgebraicCategoryOfLMnLogicAlgebras Related topic Categorical Defines Jordan algebra Defines Jordan-Banach algebra Defines Jordan-Lie algebra