JordanBanach and JordanLie algebras
0.0.1 Definitions of JordanBanach, JordanLie, and JordanBanachLie algebras
Firstly, a specific algebra^{} consists of a vector space^{} $E$ over a ground field (typically $\mathbb{R}$ or $\u2102$) equipped with a bilinear^{} and distributive multiplication $\circ $ . Note that $E$ is not necessarily commutative^{} or associative.
A Jordan algebra^{} (over $\mathbb{R}$), is an algebra over $\mathbb{R}$ for which:
$\begin{array}{cc}\hfill S\circ T& =T\circ S,\hfill \\ \hfill S\circ (T\circ {S}^{2})& =(S\circ T)\circ {S}^{2}\hfill \end{array}$,
for all elements $S,T$ of the algebra.
It is worthwhile noting now that in the algebraic theory of Jordan algebras, an important role is played by the Jordan triple product $\{STW\}$ as defined by:
$\{STW\}=(S\circ T)\circ W+(T\circ W)\circ S(S\circ W)\circ T,$
which is linear in each factor and for which $\{STW\}=\{WTS\}$ . Certain examples entail setting $\{STW\}=\frac{1}{2}\{STW+WTS\}$ .
A Jordan Lie algebra^{} is a real vector space ${\U0001d504}_{\mathbb{R}}$ together with a Jordan product $\circ $ and Poisson bracket
$\{,\}$, satisfying :

1.
for all $S,T\in {\U0001d504}_{\mathbb{R}}$, $\begin{array}{cc}\hfill S\circ T& =T\circ S\hfill \\ \hfill \{S,T\}& =\{T,S\}\hfill \end{array}$

2.
the Leibniz rule^{} holds
$\{S,T\circ W\}=\{S,T\}\circ W+T\circ \{S,W\}$ for all $S,T,W\in {\U0001d504}_{\mathbb{R}}$, along with

3.
the Jacobi identity^{} :
$\{S,\{T,W\}\}=\{\{S,T\},W\}+\{T,\{S,W\}\}$

4.
for some ${\mathrm{\hslash}}^{2}\in \mathbb{R}$, there is the associator^{} identity^{} :
$(S\circ T)\circ WS\circ (T\circ W)=\frac{1}{4}{\mathrm{\hslash}}^{2}\{\{S,W\},T\}.$
0.0.2 Poisson algebra
By a Poisson algebra we mean a Jordan algebra in which $\circ $ is associative. The usual algebraic types of morphisms automorphism^{}, isomorphism^{}, etc.) apply to JordanLie (Poisson) algebras (see Landsman, 2003).
Consider the classical configuration space $Q={\mathbb{R}}^{3}$ of a moving particle whose phase space is the cotangent bundle ${T}^{*}{\mathbb{R}}^{3}\cong {\mathbb{R}}^{6}$, and for which the space of (classical) observables is taken to be the real vector space of smooth functions^{}
$${\U0001d504}_{\mathbb{R}}^{0}={C}^{\mathrm{\infty}}({T}^{*}{R}^{3},\mathbb{R})$$ 
. The usual pointwise multiplication of functions $fg$ defines a bilinear map on ${\U0001d504}_{\mathbb{R}}^{0}$, which is seen to be commutative and associative. Further, the Poisson bracket on functions
$$\{f,g\}:=\frac{\partial f}{\partial {p}^{i}}\frac{\partial g}{\partial {q}_{i}}\frac{\partial f}{\partial {q}_{i}}\frac{\partial g}{\partial {p}^{i}},$$ 
which can be easily seen to satisfy the Liebniz rule above. The axioms above then set the stage of passage to quantum mechanical systems which the parameter ${k}^{2}$ suggests.
0.0.3 C*–algebras (C*–A), JLB and JBW Algebras
An involution^{} on a complex algebra $\U0001d504$ is a real–linear map $T\mapsto {T}^{*}$ such that for all
$S,T\in \U0001d504$ and $\lambda \in \u2102$, we have ${T}^{**}=T,{(ST)}^{*}={T}^{*}{S}^{*},{(\lambda T)}^{*}=\overline{\lambda}{T}^{*}.$
A *–algebra is said to be a complex associative algebra together with an involution $*$ .
A C*–algebra is a simultaneously a *–algebra and a Banach space^{} $\U0001d504$, satisfying for all $S,T\in \U0001d504$ :
$\begin{array}{cc}\hfill \parallel S\circ T\parallel & \le \parallel S\parallel \parallel T\parallel ,\hfill \\ \hfill {\parallel {T}^{*}T\parallel}^{2}& ={\parallel T\parallel}^{2}.\hfill \end{array}$
We can easily see that $\parallel {A}^{*}\parallel =\parallel A\parallel $ . By the above axioms a C*–algebra is a special case of a Banach algebra^{} where the latter requires the above norm property but not the involution (*) property. Given Banach spaces $E,F$ the space $\mathcal{L}(E,F)$ of (bounded) linear operators from $E$ to $F$ forms a Banach space, where for $E=F$, the space $\mathcal{L}(E)=\mathcal{L}(E,E)$ is a Banach algebra with respect to the norm
$\parallel T\parallel :=sup\{\parallel Tu\parallel :u\in E,\parallel u\parallel =1\}.$
In quantum field theory one may start with a Hilbert space^{} $H$, and consider the Banach algebra of bounded linear operators $\mathcal{L}(H)$ which given to be closed under^{} the usual algebraic operations and taking adjoints^{}, forms a $*$–algebra of bounded operators^{}, where the adjoint operation functions as the involution, and for $T\in \mathcal{L}(H)$ we have :
$\parallel T\parallel :=sup\{(Tu,Tu):u\in H,(u,u)=1\},$ and ${\parallel Tu\parallel}^{2}=(Tu,Tu)=(u,{T}^{*}Tu)\le \parallel {T}^{*}T\parallel {\parallel u\parallel}^{2}.$
By a morphism between C*–algebras $\U0001d504,\U0001d505$ we mean a linear map $\varphi :\U0001d504\u27f6\U0001d505$, such that for all $S,T\in \U0001d504$, the following hold :
$\varphi (ST)=\varphi (S)\varphi (T),\varphi ({T}^{*})=\varphi {(T)}^{*},$
where a bijective^{} morphism is said to be an isomorphism (in which case it is then an isometry). A fundamental relation^{} is that any normclosed $*$–algebra $\mathcal{A}$ in $\mathcal{L}(H)$ is a C*–algebra, and conversely, any C*–algebra is isomorphic to a norm–closed $*$–algebra in $\mathcal{L}(H)$ for some Hilbert space $H$ .
For a C*–algebra $\U0001d504$, we say that $T\in \U0001d504$ is self–adjoint if $T={T}^{*}$ . Accordingly, the self–adjoint part ${\U0001d504}^{sa}$ of $\U0001d504$ is a real vector space since we can decompose $T\in {\U0001d504}^{sa}$ as :
$T={T}^{\prime}+{T}^{{}^{\prime \prime}}:=\frac{1}{2}(T+{T}^{*})+\iota (\frac{\iota}{2})(T{T}^{*}).$
A commutative C*–algebra is one for which the associative multiplication is commutative. Given a commutative C*–algebra $\U0001d504$, we have $\U0001d504\cong C(Y)$, the algebra of continuous functions^{} on a compact Hausdorff space $Y$.
A Jordan–Banach algebra (a JB–algebra for short) is both a real Jordan algebra and a Banach space, where for all $S,T\in {\U0001d504}_{\mathbb{R}}$, we have
$\begin{array}{cc}\hfill \parallel S\circ T\parallel & \le \parallel S\parallel \parallel T\parallel ,\hfill \\ \hfill {\parallel T\parallel}^{2}& \le \parallel {S}^{2}+{T}^{2}\parallel .\hfill \end{array}$
A JLB–algebra is a JB–algebra ${\U0001d504}_{\mathbb{R}}$ together with a Poisson bracket for which it becomes a Jordan–Lie algebra for some ${\mathrm{\hslash}}^{2}\ge 0$ . Such JLB–algebras often constitute the real part of several widely studied complex associative algebras.
For the purpose of quantization, there are fundamental relations between ${\U0001d504}^{sa}$, JLB and Poisson algebras.
For further details see Landsman (2003) (Thm. 1.1.9).
A JB–algebra which is monotone^{} complete^{} and admits a separating set of normal sets is called a JBWalgebra. These appeared in the work of von Neumann who developed a (orthomodular) lattice theory of projections^{} on $\mathcal{L}(H)$ on which to study quantum logic^{} (see later). BWalgebras have the following property: whereas ${\U0001d504}^{sa}$ is a J(L)B–algebra, the self adjoint part of a von Neumann algebra^{} is a JBW–algebra.
A JC–algebra is a norm closed real linear subspace of $\mathcal{L}{(H)}^{sa}$ which is closed under the bilinear product^{} $S\circ T=\frac{1}{2}(ST+TS)$ (non–commutative and nonassociative). Since any norm closed Jordan subalgebra of $\mathcal{L}{(H)}^{sa}$ is a JB–algebra, it is natural to specify the exact relationship between JB and JC–algebras, at least in finite dimensions^{}. In order to do this, one introduces the ‘exceptional’ algebra ${H}_{3}(\mathbb{O})$, the algebra of $3\times 3$ Hermitian matrices^{} with values in the octonians $\mathbb{O}$ . Then a finite dimensional JB–algebra is a JC–algebra if and only if it does not contain ${H}_{3}(\mathbb{O})$ as a (direct) summand [1].
The above definitions and constructions follow the approach of Alfsen and Schultz (2003) and Landsman (1998).
References
 1 Alfsen, E.M. and F. W. Schultz: Geometry of State Spaces of Operator Algebras, Birkhäuser, BostonBaselBerlin.(2003).
Title  JordanBanach and JordanLie algebras 
Canonical name  JordanBanachAndJordanLieAlgebras 
Date of creation  20130322 18:14:05 
Last modified on  20130322 18:14:05 
Owner  bci1 (20947) 
Last modified by  bci1 (20947) 
Numerical id  32 
Author  bci1 (20947) 
Entry type  Topic 
Classification  msc 08A99 
Classification  msc 08A05 
Classification  msc 08A70 
Synonym  quantum operator algebras^{} 
Related topic  Algebras2 
Related topic  CAlgebra3 
Related topic  AlgebraicCategoryOfLMnLogicAlgebras 
Related topic  NonAbelianStructures 
Related topic  AbelianCategory 
Related topic  AxiomsForAnAbelianCategory 
Related topic  GeneralizedVanKampenTheoremsHigherDimensional 
Related topic  AxiomaticTheoryOfSupercategories 
Related topic  AlgebraicCategoryOfLMnLogicAlgebras 
Related topic  Categorical 
Defines  Jordan algebra 
Defines  JordanBanach algebra 
Defines  JordanLie algebra 