# compact quantum groupoids related to C*-algebras

## 1 Compact quantum groupoids (CGQs) and C*-algebras

### 1.2 Basic definitions

Let us recall first the basic definitions of C*-algebra and involution  on a complex algebra. Further details can be found in a separate entry focused on $C^{*}$-algebras (http://planetmath.org/CAlgebra).

Let us consider first the definition of an involution on a complex algebra $\mathfrak{A}$.

###### Definition 1.1.

An involution on a complex algebra $\mathfrak{A}$ is a real–linear map $T\mapsto T^{*}$ such that for all $S,T\in\mathfrak{A}$ and $\lambda\in\mathbb{C}$, we have $T^{**}=T~{},~{}(ST)^{*}=T^{*}S^{*}~{},~{}(\lambda T)^{*}=\bar{\lambda}T^{*}~{}.$

A *-algebra is said to be a complex associative algebra together with an involution $*$ .

###### Definition 1.2.

A C*-algebra is simultaneously a *-algebra and a Banach space $\mathfrak{A}$, satisfying for all $S,T\in\mathfrak{A}$  the following conditions:

\begin{aligned} \displaystyle\|S\circ T\|&\displaystyle\leq\|S\|~{}\|T\|~{},\\ \displaystyle\|T^{*}T\|^{2}&\displaystyle=\|T\|^{2}~{}.\end{aligned}

One can easily verify that $\|A^{*}\|=\|A\|$ .

By the above axioms a C*–algebra is a special case of a Banach algebra  where the latter requires the above C*-norm property, but not the involution ($*$) property.

Given Banach spaces $E,F$ the space $\mathcal{L}(E,F)$ of (bounded    ) linear operators from $E$ to $F$ forms a Banach space, where for $E=F$, the space $\mathcal{L}(E)=\mathcal{L}(E,E)$ is a Banach algebra with respect to the norm

$\|T\|:=\sup\{\|Tu\|:u\in E~{},~{}\|u\|=1\}~{}.$

$\|T\|:=\sup\{(Tu,Tu):u\in H~{},~{}(u,u)=1\}~{},$ and $\|Tu\|^{2}=(Tu,Tu)=(u,T^{*}Tu)\leq\|T^{*}T\|~{}\|u\|^{2}~{}.$

By a morphism  between C*-algebras $\mathfrak{A},\mathfrak{B}$ we mean a linear map $\phi:\mathfrak{A}{\longrightarrow}\mathfrak{B}$, such that for all $S,T\in\mathfrak{A}$, the following hold :

$\phi(ST)=\phi(S)\phi(T)~{},~{}\phi(T^{*})=\phi(T)^{*}~{},$

where a bijective   morphism is said to be an isomorphism        (in which case it is then an isometry). A fundamental relation    is that any norm-closed $*$-algebra $\mathcal{A}$ in $\mathcal{L}(H)$ is a C*-algebra (http://planetmath.org/CAlgebra3), and conversely, any C*-algebra (http://planetmath.org/CAlgebra3) is isomorphic to a norm–closed $*$-algebra in $\mathcal{L}(H)$ for some Hilbert space $H$ . One can thus also define the category $\mathcal{C}^{*}$ of C*-algebras and morphisms between C*-algebras.

For a C*-algebra (http://planetmath.org/CAlgebra3) $\mathfrak{A}$, we say that $T\in\mathfrak{A}$ is self–adjoint if $T=T^{*}$ . Accordingly, the self–adjoint part $\mathfrak{A}^{sa}$ of $\mathfrak{A}$ is a real vector space since we can decompose $T\in\mathfrak{A}^{sa}$ as  :

$T=T^{\prime}+T^{{}^{\prime\prime}}:=\frac{1}{2}(T+T^{*})+\iota(\frac{-\iota}{2% })(T-T^{*})~{}.$

The classification of $C^{*}$ -algebras is far more complex than that of von Neumann algebras that provide the fundamental algebraic content of quantum state and operator spaces in quantum theories  .

### 1.3 Quantum groupoids and the groupoid C*-algebra

Quantum groupoid (or their dual, weak Hopf coalgebras) and algebroid symmetries   figure prominently both in the theory of dynamical deformations  of quantum groups       (or their dual Hopf algebras   ) and the quantum Yang–Baxter equations (Etingof et al., 1999, 2001; [12, E2k]). On the other hand, one can also consider the natural extension   of locally compact (quantum) groups to locally compact (proper) groupoids equipped with a Haar measure and a corresponding groupoid representation    theory (Buneci, 2003,[MB2k3]) as a major, potentially interesting source for locally compact (but generally non-Abelian   ) quantum groupoids. The corresponding quantum groupoid representations on bundles of Hilbert spaces extend quantum symmetries well beyond those of quantum groups and their dual Hopf algebras, and also beyond the simpler operator algebra representations, and are also consistent  with the locally compact quantum group representations. The latter quantum groups are neither Hopf algebras, nor are they equivalent      to Hopf algebras or their dual coalgebras. As pointed out in the previous section, quantum groupoid representations are, however, the next important step towards unifying quantum field theories with General Relativity in a locally covariant and quantized form. Such representations need not however be restricted to weak Hopf algebra representations, as the latter have no known connection to any type of GR theory and also appear to be inconsistent with GR.

Quantum groupoids were recently considered as weak C* -Hopf algebras, and were studied in relationship to the non- commutative symmetries of depth 2 von Neumann subfactors. If

 $A\subset B\subset B_{1}\subset B_{2}\subset\ldots$ (1.1)

is the Jones extension induced by a finite index depth $2$ inclusion $A\subset B$ of $II_{1}$ factors, then $Q=A^{\prime}\cap B_{2}$ admits a quantum groupoid structure  and acts on $B_{1}$, so that $B=B_{1}^{Q}$ and $B_{2}=B_{1}\rtimes Q$ . Similarly, ‘paragroups’ derived from weak C* -Hopf algebras comprise (quantum) groupoids of equivalence classes  such as those associated with $6j$-symmetry groups (relative to a fusion rules algebra). They correspond to type $II$ von Neumann algebras in quantum mechanics, and arise as symmetries where the local subfactors (in the sense of containment of quantum observables within fields) have depth 2 in the Jones extension. A related question is how a von Neumann algebra $W^{*}$, such as of finite index depth 2, sits inside a weak Hopf algebra formed as the crossed product $W^{*}\rtimes A$.

### 1.4 Quantum compact groupoids

Compact quantum groupoids were introduced in Landsman (1998; ref. [L98]) as a simultaneous generalization  of a compact groupoid and a quantum group. Since this construction is relevant to the definition of locally compact quantum groupoids and their representations investigated here, its exposition is required before we can step up to the next level of generality. Firstly, let $\mathfrak{A}$ and $\mathfrak{B}$ denote C*–algebras equipped with a *–homomorphism     $\eta_{s}:\mathfrak{B}{\longrightarrow}\mathfrak{A}$, and a *–antihomomorphism $\eta_{t}:\mathfrak{B}{\longrightarrow}\mathfrak{A}$ whose images in $\mathfrak{A}$ commute. A non–commutative Haar measure is defined as a completely positive map $P:\mathfrak{A}{\longrightarrow}\mathfrak{B}$ which satisfies $P(A\eta_{s}(B))=P(A)B$ . Alternatively, the composition $\mathcal{E}=\eta_{s}\circ P:\mathfrak{A}{\longrightarrow}\eta_{s}(B)\subset% \mathfrak{A}$ is a faithful conditional expectation.

Next consider $\mathsf{G}$ to be a (topological) groupoid, and let us denote by $C_{c}(\mathsf{G})$ the space of smooth complex–valued functions with compact support on $\mathsf{G}$ . In particular, for all $f,g\in C_{c}(\mathsf{G})$, the function defined via convolution

 $(f~{}*~{}g)(\gamma)=\int_{\gamma_{1}\circ\gamma_{2}=\gamma}f(\gamma_{1})g(% \gamma_{2})~{},$ (1.2)

is again an element of $C_{c}(\mathsf{G})$, where the convolution product  defines the composition law on $C_{c}(\mathsf{G})$ . We can turn $C_{c}(\mathsf{G})$ into a $*$ -algebra once we have defined the involution $*$, and this is done by specifying $f^{*}(\gamma)=\overline{f(\gamma^{-1})}$ .

We recall that following Landsman (1998) a representation of a groupoid ${\mathbb{G}}$, consists of a family (or field) of Hilbert spaces $\{\mathcal{H}_{x}\}_{x\in X}$ indexed by $X={\rm Ob}~{}{\mathbb{G}}$, along with a collection  of maps $\{U(\gamma)\}_{\gamma\in{\mathbb{G}}}$, satisfying:

Suppose now $\mathsf{G}_{lc}$ is a Lie groupoid. Then the isotropy group  $\mathsf{G}_{x}$ is a Lie group  , and for a (left or right) Haar measure $\mu_{x}$ on $\mathsf{G}_{x}$, we can consider the Hilbert spaces $\mathcal{H}_{x}=L^{2}(\mathsf{G}_{x},\mu_{x})$ as exemplifying the above sense of a representation. Putting aside some technical details which can be found in Connes (1994) and Landsman (2006), the overall idea is to define an operator of Hilbert spaces

 $\pi_{x}(f):L^{2}(\mathsf{G_{x}},\mu_{x}){\longrightarrow}L^{2}(\mathsf{G}_{x},% \mu_{x})~{},$ (1.3)

given by

 $(\pi_{x}(f)\xi)(\gamma)=\int f(\gamma_{1})\xi(\gamma_{1}^{-1}\gamma)~{}d\mu_{x% }~{},$ (1.4)

for all $\gamma\in\mathsf{G}_{x}$, and $\xi\in\mathcal{H}_{x}$ . For each $x\in X={\rm Ob}~{}\mathsf{G}$, $\pi_{x}$ defines an involutive representation $\pi_{x}:C_{c}(\mathsf{G}){\longrightarrow}\mathcal{H}_{x}$ . We can define a norm on $C_{c}(\mathsf{G})$ given by

 $\|f\|=\sup_{x\in X}\|\pi_{x}(f)\|~{},$ (1.5)

whereby the completion  of $C_{c}(\mathsf{G})$ in this norm, defines the reduced  C*–algebra $C^{*}_{r}(\mathsf{G})$ of $\mathsf{G}_{lc}$. It is perhaps the most commonly used C*–algebra for Lie groupoids (groups) in noncommutative geometry.

The next step requires a little familiarity with the theory of Hilbert modules. We define a left $\mathfrak{B}$–action $\lambda$ and a right $\mathfrak{B}$–action $\rho$ on $\mathfrak{A}$ by $\lambda(B)A=A\eta_{t}(B)$ and $\rho(B)A=A\eta_{s}(B)$ . For the sake of localization of the intended Hilbert module, we implant a $\mathfrak{B}$–valued inner product  on $\mathfrak{A}$ given by $\langle A,C\rangle_{\mathfrak{B}}=P(A^{*}C)$  . Let us recall that $P$ is defined as a completely positive map. Since $P$ is faithful, we fit a new norm on $\mathfrak{A}$ given by $\|A\|^{2}=\|P(A^{*}A)\|_{\mathfrak{B}}$ . The completion of $\mathfrak{A}$ in this new norm is denoted by $\mathfrak{A}^{-}$ leading then to a Hilbert module over $\mathfrak{B}$ .

The tensor product   $\mathfrak{A}^{-}\otimes_{\mathfrak{B}}\mathfrak{A}^{-}$ can be shown to be a Hilbert bimodule over $\mathfrak{B}$, which for $i=1,2$, leads to *–homorphisms $\varphi^{i}:\mathfrak{A}{\longrightarrow}\mathcal{L}_{\mathfrak{B}}(\mathfrak{% A}^{-}\otimes\mathfrak{A}^{-})$ . Next is to define the (unital) C*–algebra $\mathfrak{A}\otimes_{\mathfrak{B}}\mathfrak{A}$ as the C*–algebra contained in $\mathcal{L}_{\mathfrak{B}}(\mathfrak{A}^{-}\otimes\mathfrak{A}^{-})$ that is generated by $\varphi^{1}(\mathfrak{A})$ and $\varphi^{2}(\mathfrak{A})$ . The last stage of the recipe for defining a compact quantum groupoid entails considering a certain coproduct  operation $\Delta:\mathfrak{A}{\longrightarrow}\mathfrak{A}\otimes_{\mathfrak{B}}% \mathfrak{A}$, together with a coinverse $Q:\mathfrak{A}{\longrightarrow}\mathfrak{A}$ that it is both an algebra and bimodule antihomomorphism. Finally, the following axiomatic relationships are observed :

 $\displaystyle({\rm id}\otimes_{\mathfrak{B}}\Delta)\circ\Delta$ $\displaystyle=(\Delta\otimes_{\mathfrak{B}}{\rm id})\circ\Delta$ (1.6) $\displaystyle({\rm id}\otimes_{\mathfrak{B}}P)\circ\Delta$ $\displaystyle=P$ $\displaystyle\tau\circ(\Delta\otimes_{\mathfrak{B}}Q)\circ\Delta$ $\displaystyle=\Delta\circ Q$

where $\tau$ is a flip map : $\tau(a\otimes b)=(b\otimes a)$ .

There is a natural extension of the above definition of quantum compact groupoids to locally compact quantum groupoids by taking $\mathsf{G}_{lc}$ to be a locally compact groupoid  (instead of a compact groupoid), and then following the steps in the above construction with the topological groupoid $\mathsf{G}$ being replaced by $\mathsf{G}_{lc}$. Additional integrability and Haar measure system conditions need however be also satisfied as in the general case of locally compact groupoid representations (for further details, see for example the monograph by Buneci (2003).

#### 1.4.1 Reduced C*–algebra

Consider $\mathsf{G}$ to be a topological groupoid. We denote by $C_{c}(\mathsf{G})$ the space of smooth complex–valued functions with compact support on $\mathsf{G}$ . In particular, for all $f,g\in C_{c}(\mathsf{G})$, the function defined via convolution

 $(f~{}*~{}g)(\gamma)=\int_{\gamma_{1}\circ\gamma_{2}=\gamma}f(\gamma_{1})g(% \gamma_{2})~{},$ (1.7)

is again an element of $C_{c}(\mathsf{G})$, where the convolution product defines the composition law on $C_{c}(\mathsf{G})$ . We can turn $C_{c}(\mathsf{G})$ into a *–algebra once we have defined the involution $*$, and this is done by specifying $f^{*}(\gamma)=\overline{f(\gamma^{-1})}$ .

We recall that following Landsman (1998) a representation of a groupoid ${\mathbb{G}}$, consists of a family (or field) of Hilbert spaces $\{\mathcal{H}_{x}\}_{x\in X}$ indexed by $X={\rm Ob}~{}{\mathbb{G}}$, along with a collection of maps $\{U(\gamma)\}_{\gamma\in{\mathbb{G}}}$, satisfying:

• 1.

$U(\gamma):\mathcal{H}_{s(\gamma)}{\longrightarrow}\mathcal{H}_{r(\gamma)}$, is unitary.

• 2.

$U(\gamma_{1}\gamma_{2})=U(\gamma_{1})U(\gamma_{2})$, whenever $(\gamma_{1},\gamma_{2})\in{\mathbb{G}}^{(2)}$  (the set of arrows).

• 3.

$U(\gamma^{-1})=U(\gamma)^{*}$, for all $\gamma\in{\mathbb{G}}$ .

Suppose now $\mathsf{G}_{lc}$ is a Lie groupoid. Then the isotropy group $\mathsf{G}_{x}$ is a Lie group, and for a (left or right) Haar measure $\mu_{x}$ on $\mathsf{G}_{x}$, we can consider the Hilbert spaces $\mathcal{H}_{x}=L^{2}(\mathsf{G}_{x},\mu_{x})$ as exemplifying the above sense of a representation. Putting aside some technical details which can be found in Connes (1994) and Landsman (2006), the overall idea is to define an operator of Hilbert spaces

 $\pi_{x}(f):L^{2}(\mathsf{G_{x}},\mu_{x}){\longrightarrow}L^{2}(\mathsf{G}_{x},% \mu_{x})~{},$ (1.8)

given by

 $(\pi_{x}(f)\xi)(\gamma)=\int f(\gamma_{1})\xi(\gamma_{1}^{-1}\gamma)~{}d\mu_{x% }~{},$ (1.9)

for all $\gamma\in\mathsf{G}_{x}$, and $\xi\in\mathcal{H}_{x}$ . For each $x\in X={\rm Ob}~{}\mathsf{G}$, $\pi_{x}$ defines an involutive representation $\pi_{x}:C_{c}(\mathsf{G}){\longrightarrow}\mathcal{H}_{x}$ . We can define a norm on $C_{c}(\mathsf{G})$ given by

 $\|f\|=\sup_{x\in X}\|\pi_{x}(f)\|~{},$ (1.10)

whereby the completion of $C_{c}(\mathsf{G})$ in this norm, defines the reduced C*–algebra $C^{*}_{r}(\mathsf{G})$ of $\mathsf{G}_{lc}$.

It is perhaps the most commonly used C*–algebra for Lie groupoids (groups) in noncommutative geometry.

## References

 Title compact quantum groupoids related to C*-algebras Canonical name CompactQuantumGroupoidsRelatedToCalgebras Date of creation 2013-03-22 18:13:34 Last modified on 2013-03-22 18:13:34 Owner bci1 (20947) Last modified by bci1 (20947) Numerical id 125 Author bci1 (20947) Entry type Topic Classification msc 81R40 Classification msc 81R60 Classification msc 81Q60 Classification msc 81R50 Classification msc 81R15 Classification msc 46L05 Synonym quantum compact groupoids Synonym weak Hopf algebras Synonym quantized locally compact groupoids with left Haar measure Related topic GroupoidCDynamicalSystem Related topic GroupoidAndGroupRepresentationsRelatedToQuantumSymmetries Related topic QuantumAlgebraicTopology Related topic GrassmanHopfAlgebrasAndTheirDualCoAlgebras Related topic NoncommutativeGeometry Related topic GroupoidCConvolutionAlgebra Related topic JordanBanachAndJordanLieAlgebras Related topic ClassesOfAlgebr Defines commutative C*-algebra Defines QOA Defines alternative definition of C*-algebra Defines C*-norm Defines morphism between C*-algebras Defines category of C*-algebras Defines quantum compact groupoid